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FOREWORD

1. This standard is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies of the Department of Defense (DoD).

2. In accordance with DoD Instruction 4630.8, it is DoD policy that all forces for joint and combined operations be supported through compatible, interoperable, and integrated Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) systems. Furthermore, all C3I systems developed for use by U.S. forces are considered to be for joint use. The director of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) serves as DoD's single point of contact for developing information technology standards to achieve interoperability and compatibility. All C3I systems and equipment shall conform to technical and procedural standards for interface, interoperability, and compatibility, as recommended by DISA.

3. MIL-STDs in the 188 series (MIL-STD-188-XXX) address telecommunication design parameters based on proven technologies. These MIL-STDs are to be used in all new DoD systems and equipment, or major upgrades thereto, to ensure interoperability. The MIL-STD-188 series is subdivided into a MIL-STD-188-100 series, covering common standards for tactical and long-haul communications; a MIL-STD-188-200 series, covering standards for tactical communications only; and a MIL-STD-300 series, covering standards for long-haul communications only. Emphasis is being placed on the development of common standards for tactical and long-haul communications (the MIL-STD-188-100 series). The MIL-STD-188 series may be based on, or make reference to, Joint Technical Architecture, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) recommendations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreements (STANAG), and other standards wherever applicable.

4. This document contains technical standards and design objectives for medium- and

high-frequency radio systems. Included are: (1) the basic radio parameters to support both conventional and adaptive radio communications; and (2) technical parameters for automatic link establishment (ALE), linking protection, and other advanced adaptive features and functions.

5. The technical parameters in certain identified paragraphs have not (as of the date of publication) been verified by testing or implementation. These parameters have, however, been subjected to rigorous simulation and computer modeling. The DoD working group and the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) are confident that these features, functions, and parameters are technically valid. The un-tested portion of the technology are marked (NT) following the title of each paragraph containing un-tested material.

6. Users of this MIL-STD should note that there is no proprietary or otherwise restricted use material in this document. This document is for unrestricted DoD, federal, and industry use.
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PARAGRAPH PAGE

1. SCOPE. 11.1 Scope. 11.2 Applicability. 11.3 Application guidance. 12. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS. 12.1 General. 12.2 Government documents. 12.2.1 Specifications, standards, and handbooks. 12.2.2 Other Government documents, drawings, and publications. 22.3 Non-Government publications. 22.4 Order of precedence. 33. DEFINITIONS. 33.1 Terms. 33.2 Abbreviations and acronyms. 44.1 General. 54.1.1 Equipment parameters. 64.1.2 Basic HF radio parameters. 64.2 Equipment operation mode. 74.2.1 Baseline mode. 74.2.1.1 Single-channel. 84.2.1.2 Multichannel. 84.2.2 Push-to-talk operation. 84.2.3 ALE mode. 84.2.4 Anti-jam (AJ) mode. 84.2.5 Linking protection (LP). 94.3 Interface parameters. 94.3.1 Electrical characteristics of digital interfaces. 94.3.2 Electrical characteristics of analog interfaces. 94.3.3 Modulation and data signaling rates. 94.4 NATO and Quadripartite interoperability requirements. 94.4.1 Single-channel communications systems. 94.4.2 Maritime air communications systems. 94.4.3 High-performance HF data modems. 104.4.4 QSTAGs. 104.5 Adaptive communications. 104.6 Linking protection. 114.7 HF data link protocol. 114.8 Networking functions. 114.8.1 Indirect calling and relaying. 114.8.2 Network management. 12TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued)PARAGRAPH PAGE4.9 Application protocols for HF radio networks. 125. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS. 155.1 General. 155.1.1 Introduction. 155.1.2 Signal and noise relationships. 155.2 Common equipment characteristics. 155.2.1 Displayed frequency. 155.2.2 Frequency coverage. 155.2.3 Frequency accuracy. 155.2.4 Phase stability. 155.2.5 Phase noise. 155.2.6 Bandwidths. 185.2.7 Overall channel responses. 185.2.7.1 Single-channel or dual-channel operation. 185.2.7.2 Four-channel operation. 195.2.8 Absolute delay. 225.3 Transmitter characteristics. 225.3.1 Noise and distortion. 225.3.1.1 In-band noise. 225.3.1.2 Intermodulation distortion (IMD). 225.3.2 Spectral purity. 225.3.2.1 Broadband emissions. 225.3.2.2 Discrete frequency spurious emissions. 245.3.3 Carrier suppression. 255.3.4 Automatic level control (ALC). 255.3.5 Attack and release time delays. 275.3.5.1 Attack-time delay. 275.3.5.2 Release-time delay. 275.3.6 Signal input interface characteristics. 275.3.6.1 Input signal power. 275.3.6.2 Input audio signal interface. 275.3.6.2.1 Unbalanced interface. 275.3.6.2.2 Balanced interface. 275.3.7 Transmitter output load impedance. 275.4 Receiver characteristics. 295.4.1 Receiver rf characteristics. 295.4.1.1 Image rejection. 295.4.1.2 Intermediate frequency (IF) rejection. 295.4.1.3 Adjacent-channel rejection. 295.4.1.4 Other signal-frequency external spurious responses. 295.4.1.5 Receiver protection. 29TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued)PARAGRAPH PAGE5.4.1.6 Desensitization dynamic range. 295.4.1.7 Receiver sensitivity. 305.4.1.8 Receiver out-of-band IMD. 305.4.1.9 Third-order intercept point. 305.4.2 Receiver distortion and internally generated spurious outputs. 305.4.2.1 Overall IMD (in-channel). 305.4.2.2 Adjacent-channel IMD. 305.4.2.3 Audio frequency total harmonic distortion. 305.4.2.4 Internally generated spurious outputs. 305.4.3 Automatic gain control (AGC) characteristic. 315.4.3.1 AGC attack time (nondata modes). 315.4.3.2 AGC release time (nondata modes). 315.4.3.3 AGC requirements for data service. 315.4.4 Receiver linearity. 315.4.5 Interface characteristics. 315.4.5.1 Input impedance. 315.4.5.2 Output impedance and power. 315.5 ALE. 325.5.1 Basic ALE (Second Generation). 325.5.2 Third Generation ALE. 325.6 LP. 325.7 ALE control functions (orderwire functions). 325.8 Networking functions. 325.9 Network management. 325.10 HF application interface. 325.11 Data link protocol. 335.12 Anti-jam capability. 335.13 ARQ protocol. 336. NOTES. 336.1 Intended use. 336.2 Interaction matrix. 336.3 Issue of DODISS. 336.4 Subject term (key word) listing. 336.5 International standardization agreements. 346.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements. 34Interaction matrix: General features. 36

TABLES

TABLE I. Relaying alternative notes. 14TABLE II. Bandwidths. 18TABLE III. Out-of-band power spectral density limits for radio transmitters. 23TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

PARAGRAPH PAGE

FIGURES

FIGURE 1. Physical layer with transceiver and modem elements. 7FIGURE 2. Radio subsystems interface points. 10FIGURE 3. Relaying alternatives. 13FIGURE 4. Phase noise limit mask for fixed site and transportable long-haul radio transmitters. 16FIGURE 5. Phase noise limit mask for tactical radio transmitters. 17FIGURE 6. Overall channel response for single-channel or dual-channel equipment. 19FIGURE 7. Overall channel characteristics (four-channel equipment). 21FIGURE 8. Out-of-band power spectral density for HF transmitters. 24FIGURE 9. Discrete spurious emissions limit for HF transmitters. 26FIGURE 10. Output power vs. VSWR for transmitters with broadband output impedance networks. 28

APPENDICES

Appendix A. Automatic Link Establishment System 39

Appendix B. Linking Protection 236

Appendix C. Third Generation HF Link Automation 269

Appendix D. HF Radio Networking 446

Appendix E. Application Protocols for HF Radio Networks 495

Appendix F. Anti-jam and Anti-interference Techniques 505

Appendix G. HF Data Link Protocol 514

Appendix H. Management Information Base for Automated HF Radio Networks 516

Appendix I. Supporting Technical Rationale 584

1. SCOPE.

1.1 Scope.

The purpose of this document is to establish technical performance and interface parameters in the form of firm requirements and optional design objectives (DO) that are considered necessary to ensure interoperability and interface of new long-haul and tactical radio systems in the medium frequency (MF) band and in the high frequency (HF) band. It is also the purpose of this document to establish a level of performance for new radio equipment as is considered necessary to satisfy the requirements of the majority of users. These technical parameters, therefore, represent a minimum set of interoperability, interface, and performance standards. The technical parameters of this document may be exceeded in order to satisfy certain specific requirements, provided that interoperability is maintained. That is, the capability to incorporate features such as additional standard and nonstandard interfaces is not precluded.

1.2 Applicability.

This standard is approved for use within the Department of Defense (DoD) in the design and development of new MF and HF radio systems. It is not intended that existing equipment and systems be immediately converted to comply with the provisions of this standard. New equipment and systems, and those undergoing major modification or rehabilitation, shall conform to this standard. If deviation from this standard is required, the user should contact the lead standardization activity for waiver procedures.

1.3 Application guidance.

The terms "system standard" and "design objective" are defined in FED-STD-1037. In this document, the word "shall" identifies firm requirements. The word "should" identifies design objectives that are desirable but not mandatory.

2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS.

2.1 General.

The documents listed in this section are specified in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this standard. This section does not include documents cited in other sections of this standard, those recommended for additional information, or those used as examples. While every effort has been made to ensure the completeness of this list, document users are cautioned that they must meet all specified requirements documents cited in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this standard, whether or not they are listed.

2.2 Government documents.

2.2.1 Specifications, standards, and handbooks.

The following specifications, standards, and handbooks form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of these documents are those listed in the issue of the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) and supplement thereto cited in the solicitation (see paragraph 6.3).
STANDARDS
FEDERAL
FED-STD-1037 Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunications Terms
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
MIL-STD-188-110 Interoperability and Performance Standards for HF Data Modems
MIL-STD-188-114 Electrical Characteristics of Digital Interface Circuits
MIL-STD-188-148 (S) Interoperability Standard for Anti-Jam (AJ) Communications in the High Frequency Band 

(2-30 MHz) (U)

(Unless otherwise indicated, copies of the above specifications, standards, and handbooks are available from the Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)

2.2.2 Other Government documents, drawings, and publications.

The following other Government documents, drawings, and publications form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues are those cited in the solicitation.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
NTIA Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management

(Applications for copies should be addressed to the U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIA, Room 4890, 14th and Constitution Ave. N.W., Washington, DC 20230.)

2.3 Non-Government publications.

The following documents form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the documents which have been adopted by DoD are those listed in the issues of the DODISS cited in the solicitation. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the documents not listed in the DODISS are the issues of the documents cited in the solicitation (see paragraph 6.3).
 
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreements (STANAGs)
STANAG 4203 Technical Standards for Single Channel HF Radio Equipment
STANAG 5035 Introduction of an Improved System for Maritime Air Communications on HF, LF, and UHF

(Applications for copies should be addressed to: Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)
Quadripartite Standardization Agreements (QSTAGs)
QSTAG 733 Technical Standards for Single Channel High Frequency Radio Equipment

(Application for copies should be addressed to: Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Radio Regulations
CCIR Recommendations 455-2 Improved Transmission System for HF Radiotelephone Circuits

(Application for copies should be addressed to the General Secretariat, International Telecommunications Union, Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.)

(Non-Government standards and other publications are normally available from the organizations that prepare or distribute the documents. These documents also may be available in or through libraries or other informational services.)

2.4 Order of precedence.

In the event of a conflict between the text of this document and the references cited herein, the text of this document takes precedence. Nothing in this document, however, supersedes applicable laws and regulations unless a specific exemption has been obtained.

3. DEFINITIONS.

3.1 Terms.

Definitions of terms used in this document shall be as specified in the current edition of

FED-STD-1037, except where inconsistent with the use in this standard. In addition, the following definitions are applicable for the purpose of this standard.

High-performance HF data modem. High-speed (capable of at least 1200 bits per second) or robust data modes which incorporate sophisticated techniques for correcting or reducing the number of raw (over-the-air induced) errors.

Phase noise (dBc/Hertz (Hz)). The amount of single-sided phase noise, contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth, produced by a carrier (signal generation) source, and referenced in decibels below the full (unsuppressed) carrier output power.

Second generation automatic link establishment (2G ALE). ALE as first technically described in Appendix A of this document.

Third generation automatic link establishment (3G ALE). ALE as first technically described in Appendix C of this document.

3.2 Abbreviations and acronyms.

The abbreviations and acronyms used in this document are defined below. Those listed in the current edition of FED-STD-1037 have been included for the convenience of the reader.
2G ALE second generation automatic link establishment
3G ALE third generation automatic link establishment
ABCA American, British, Canadian, Australian
AGC automatic gain control
AJ Anti-Jam
ALC automatic level control
ALE automatic link establishment
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ARQ automatic repeat request
b/s bits per second
Bd baud
C3I Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee
dB decibels
dBc decibels referenced to full-rated peak envelope power
DII Defense Information Infrastructure
DISA Defense Information Systems Agency
DISAC Defense Information Systems Agency Circular
DO design objective
DoD Department of Defense
DODISS Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards
EMC electromagnetic compatibility
FDM frequency division multiplex
FEC forward error correction
FSK frequency-shift keying
HF high frequency
HFNC HF Network Controller
Hz Hertz
ICW interrupted continuous wave
IF intermediate frequency
IMD intermodulation distortion
ISB independent sideband 
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector
kHz kiloHertz
LP link protection
LQA link quality analysis
LSB lower sideband
MF medium frequency
MHz megahertz
ms millisecond
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NBFM narrowband frequency modulation
NSA National Security Agency
NT not tested
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration
PEP peak envelope power
PI protection interval
PQM path quality matrix
PTT push-to-talk
QSTAG Quadripartite Standard Agreement
rf radio frequency
RT routing table
SINAD signal-plus-noise-plus-distortion to noise-plus-distortion ratio
SSB single-sideband 
STANAG Standard Agreement
TAC Technical Advisory Committee
TOD time of day
uncl unclassified
USB upper sideband
VSWR voltage standing wave radio

4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

4.1 General.

By convention, frequency band allocation for the MF band is from 0.3 megahertz (MHz) to 3 MHz and the HF band is from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. However, for military purposes, equipment designed for HF band use has been historically designed with frequency coverage extending into the MF band. For new HF equipment, HF band standard parameters shall apply to any portion of the MF band included as extended coverage. Currently there are no known military requirements below 1.5 MHz. Consequently, this portion of the MF band is not standardized.

4.1.1 Equipment parameters.

Equipment parameters will be categorized using functional use groups for radio assemblages/sets. Historically, these groups have been fixed (long-haul) installations and tactical systems. The tactical sets are subgrouped further into vehicle transportable and manpack versions. Although these distinctions still exist in principle, the former lines of distinction have become somewhat blurred. The mobility of current military forces dictates that a significant number of long-haul requirements will be met with transportable systems, and in some cases, such systems are implemented with design components shared with manpack radios. When such "tactical" equipment is used to meet a long-haul requirement, the equipment shall meet long-haul minimum performance standards.

4.1.2 Basic HF radio parameters.

Basic HF radio parameters are contained in this section and in section 5. HF technology going beyond the basic radio is contained in the appendices. Figure 1 shows the relationship of the functional aspects of current HF technology in terms of the Seven Layer Reference Model. The shaded area in figure 1 indicates coverage in this section and section 5.


FIGURE 1. Physical layer with transceiver and modem elements.

4.2 Equipment operation mode.

4.2.1 Baseline mode.

Frequency control of all new HF equipment, except manpack, shall be capable of being stabilized by an external standard. Should multiple-frequency (channel) storage be incorporated, it shall be of the programmable-memory type and be capable of storing/initializing the operational mode (see paragraphs 4.2.1.1 and 4.2.1.2 below, and paragraph A.4.3.1 of Appendix A) associated with each particular channel.

4.2.1.1 Single-channel.

All new single-channel HF equipment shall provide, as a minimum, the capability for the following one-at-a-time selectable operational modes:

a. One nominal 3-kiloHertz (kHz) channel upper sideband (USB) or lower sideband (LSB) (selectable).

b. One (rate-dependent bandwidth) interrupted continuous wave (ICW) channel.*

c. A narrowband frequency modulation (NBFM) channel capability should be included as a DO.

*Not mandatory for radios designed for ALE.

4.2.1.2 Multichannel.

All new multichannel HF equipment shall provide a single channel capability as set forth in paragraph 4.2.1.1, as a minimum, and one or more of the following modes, selectable one at a time:

a. Two nominal 3-kHz channels in the USB and LSB (two independent channels in the same sideband--sideband selectable).

b. One nominal 6-kHz channel in the USB or LSB (selectable).

c. Two nominal 3-kHz channels in the USB and two in the LSB (four independent 3-kHz channels two in each sideband).

d. One nominal 6-kHz channel in the USB and one in the LSB (two independent 6-kHz channels--one in each sideband).

e. One nominal 3-kHz channel in the USB and one in the LSB (two independent 3-kHz channels--one in each sideband).

4.2.2 Push-to-talk operation.

Push-to-talk (PTT) operation is the most common form of interaction with MF/HF single sideband (SSB) radios, especially for tactical use by minimally trained, "noncommunicator" operators. Manual control with PTT shall be conventional; that is, the operator pushes the PTT button to talk and releases it to listen.

4.2.3 ALE mode.

Should an ALE capability be included, it shall be of the channel-scanning type and shall provide for contact initiation by either or both manual and automated control. Detailed requirements are in Appendix A. See 4.5 for the list of features required to support this operational mode.

4.2.4 Anti-jam (AJ) mode.

If AJ is to be implemented, the AJ capabilities and features for HF radios shall be in accordance with MIL-STD-188-148 and Appendix F, Anti-jam and Anti-interference Techniques.

4.2.5 Linking protection (LP).

If LP is to be implemented, the LP capabilities and features for HF radios shall be in accordance with Appendix B.

4.3 Interface parameters.

4.3.1 Electrical characteristics of digital interfaces.

As a minimum, any incorporated interfaces for serial binary data shall be in accordance with the provisions of MIL-STD-188-114, and any other interfaces specified by the contracting agencies. Such interfaces shall include provisions for request-to-send and clear-to-send signaling. The capability to accept additional standard interfaces is not precluded.

4.3.2 Electrical characteristics of analog interfaces.

See 5.3.6 and 5.4.5.

4.3.3 Modulation and data signaling rates.

The modulation rate (expressed in baud (Bd)) or the data signaling rate (expressed in bits per second (b/s)) at interface points A and A' in figure 2 shall include those contained in

MIL-STD-188-110.

4.4 NATO and Quadripartite interoperability requirements.

4.4.1 Single-channel communications systems.

If interoperation with NATO member nations is required for land, air, and maritime applications, single-channel HF radio equipment shall comply with the applicable requirements of the current edition of STANAG 4203.

4.4.2 Maritime air communications systems.

If interoperation with NATO member nations is required, HF maritime air communications shall comply with the applicable requirements of the current edition of STANAG 5035.

FIGURE 2. Radio subsystems interface points.

4.4.3 High-performance HF data modems.

If interoperation with NATO member nations is required, land, air, and maritime, single-channel HF radio equipment shall comply with the applicable requirements of the appropriate STANAG.

4.4.4 QSTAGs.

If interoperation among American, British, Canadian, Australian (ABCA), and New Zealand Armies is required, HF combat net radio equipment shall comply with the applicable requirements of the current edition of QSTAG 733.

4.5 Adaptive communications.

Adaptive HF describes any HF communications system that has the ability to sense its communications environment, and, if required, to automatically adjust operations to improve communications performance. Should the user elect to incorporate adaptive features, they shall be in accordance with the requirements for those features stated in this document.

The essential adaptive features are:

a. Channel (frequency) scanning capability.

b. ALE using an embedded selective calling capability. A disabling capability and a capability to inhibit responses shall be included.

c. Automatic sounding (station-identifiable transmissions). A capability to disable sounding and a capability to inhibit responses shall be included.

d. Limited link quality analysis (LQA) for assisting the ALE function:

(1) Relative data error assessment.

(2) Relative signal-plus-noise-plus-distortion to noise-plus-distortion ratio (SINAD).

(3) Multipath/distortion assessment (DO) (optional).

e. Automatic link maintenance

f. Channel occupancy

4.6 Linking protection.

LP refers to the protection of the linking function required to establish, control, maintain, and terminate the radio link. Because this protection is applied to the link establishment function, LP is a data link layer function in terms of the Seven Layer Reference Model. Figure B-1, Appendix B shows a conceptual model of the MIL-STD-188-141 data link layer functions, showing the placement within the data link layer at which linking protection shall be implemented. Voice transmissions or data transmissions from external modems are not affected by the LP. The LP application levels and their corresponding protection interval (PI) are defined in Appendix B, paragraphs B 4.1.1 through B 4.1.1.5.

4.7 HF data link protocol.

See Appendix G, HF Data Link Protocol and MIL-STD-188-110.

4.8 Networking functions.

a. MIL­STD-188-141 establishes the technology baseline needed for establishing and maintaining links among HF radio stations. Networking technology augments this direct connection capability with the ability to find and use indirect routes.

b. The functions performed at the network layer may be grouped into two broad categories: routing functions and data management functions. Routing functions select paths through the network for voice and data traffic, using stored information (provided by operators, local data link controllers, and remote networking controllers) about the quality of available links to other stations. Data management functions acquire and communicate that (and other) information.

c. Link-level error statistics directly characterize the quality of single-link paths and are used to compute end-to-end path quality for multiple-link paths through relays. These results are stored in a path quality matrix (PQM), which is organized to provide the path quality to any reachable destination via each directly-reachable relay station. From this path quality data, a routing table (RT) is formed. This table lists the best path to each reachable station for various types of communication (e.g., voice and data).

4.8.1 Indirect calling and relaying.

When a station cannot directly link with a desired destination, other stations may be employed to assist in getting the message through. The simplest option is to have the local link controller or

the HF Network Controller (HFNC) establish a link with a station other than the desired destination so that the station operators can manually communicate (using either voice or data orderwire) after the fashion of a torn­tape relay. When the equipment at the intermediate station is able to automatically establish an indirect path to the destination, this is termed relaying. A variety of relaying techniques are possible, some of which are shown in figure 3. These techniques are differentiated where the cross-connection occurs in the protocol stack. Each alternative is briefly discussed in table I.

4.8.2 Network management.

See Appendix D, HF Radio Networking, and Appendix H, Management Information Base

4.9 Application protocols for HF radio networks.

See Appendix E, Application Protocols for HF Radio Networks.

FIGURE 3. Relaying alternatives.
 

TABLE I. Relaying alternative notes.

Type
Description

Radio Frequency (RF) echo

No radios required. Examples: float a large aluminized balloon or use a billboard reflector.
RF repeater Formed by connecting an RF amplifier between two antennas. Uses different radio frequencies by heterodyning or translating the received frequencies.
VF repeater Formed by connecting two radios back-to-back through the audio ports. This and all following relays can easily use different radio frequencies.
Bit repeater Formed by connecting data ports of modems. Regenerates audio and bit timing.
Word repeater Occurs just above forward error correction (FEC) sublayer (and below LP). Corrects errors in data words but does not examine those words or otherwise manipulate their contents. Introduces one word time delay.
Frame repeater Occurs within data link protocol sublayer. Like word repeater, but buffers an entire frame before retransmitting it; introduces delay of frame time plus time to detect the end of the frame. This and all following relays require only one radio, but can use more if available
Slave router Occurs just above data link layer. Effectively connects data links in tandem as directed by indirect addresses in data link frames. Makes no routing decisions; merely implements the routing scheme specified in frames that it receives (hence the name).
Router Network layer function. Determines where to send each received frame using local routing information; this routing information may be entirely static or it may include real-time data (in an adaptive router). Uses network layer message header; normally has access only to message section of data link layer (e.g., ALE) frame. May buffer data when no path currently exists to destination.
Mailbox Application layer function. Stores messages for later retrieval by specified recipient.
BBS Application layer function. Stores messages for later retrieval by anyone with access to that bulletin board system.

5. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS.

5.1 General.

5.1.1 Introduction.

This section provides detailed performance standards for MF and HF radio equipment. These performance standards shall apply over the appropriate frequency range from 2.0 MHz to 29.9999 MHz (DO: 1.5 MHz to 29.9999 MHz).

5.1.2 Signal and noise relationships.

The signal and noise relationships are expressed as SINAD, unless otherwise identified. Unless otherwise specified, when the ratio is stated, the noise bandwidth is 3 kHz.

5.2 Common equipment characteristics.

These characteristics shall apply to each transmitter and to each receiver unless otherwise specified.

5.2.1 Displayed frequency.

The displayed frequency shall be that of the carrier, whether suppressed or not.

5.2.2 Frequency coverage.

The radio equipment shall be capable of operating over the frequency range of 2.0 MHz to 29.9999 MHz in a maximum of 100-Hz frequency increments (DO: 10-Hz) for single-channel equipment, and 10-Hz frequency increments (DO: 1-Hz) for multichannel equipment.

5.2.3 Frequency accuracy.

The accuracy of the radio carrier frequency, including tolerance and long-term stability, but not any variation due to doppler shift, shall be within +30 Hz for tactical application and within +10 Hz for all others, during a period of not less than 30 days. If tactical system include long haul interoperability mission, tactical equipment must meet +10 Hz radio carrier frequency specification.

5.2.4 Phase stability.

The phase stability shall be such that the probability that the phase difference will exceed 5 degrees over any two successive 10 millisecond (ms) periods (13.33-ms periods may also be used) shall be less than 1 percent. Measurements shall be performed over a sufficient number of adjacent periods to establish the specified probability with a confidence of at least 95 percent.

5.2.5 Phase noise.

The synthesizer and mixer phase-noise spectrum at the transmitter output shall not exceed those limits as depicted in figures 4 and 5 under continuous carrier single-tone output conditions. Figure 4 depicts the limits of phase noise for cosited and non-cosited fixed-site and transportable long-haul radio transmitters. Figure 5 depicts the limits for tactical radio transmitters. If tactical system include long haul interoperability mission, tactical equipment must meet +10 Hz radio carrier frequency specification.


FIGURE 4. Phase noise limit mask for fixed site and transportable long-haul radio transmitters.



FIGURE 5. Phase noise limit mask for tactical radio transmitters.

5.2.6 Bandwidths.

The bandwidths for high frequency band emissions shall be as shown in table II. Use of other HF band emissions is optional, however, if selected, shall be as shown in table II. Other high frequency band emissions, which may be required to satisfy specific user requirements, can be found in the NTIA Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management.

TABLE II. Bandwidths.

Emission type
Maximum Allowable 3 decibels (dB) Bandwidth (kHz)
Mandatory Req.
ICW
0.5
Yes*
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) 

(85-Hz shift)

0.3
No
FSK

(850-Hz shift)

1.1
No
SSB modulation 

single-channel

see 5.2.7.1
Yes
Independent-sideband (ISM) modulation
two channels
see 5.2.7.1
No
four channels
see 5.2.7.2
No
* Not mandatory for radios designed for ALE.

5.2.7 Overall channel responses.

5.2.7.1 Single-channel or dual-channel operation.

The amplitude vs. frequency response between (f0 + 300 Hz) and (f0 + 3050 Hz) shall be within 3 dB (total) where f0 is the carrier frequency. The attenuation shall be at least 20 dB from f0 to (f0 - 415 Hz), at least 40 dB from (f0 - 415 Hz) to (f0 - 1000 Hz), and at least 60 dB below (f0 - 1000 Hz). Attenuation shall be at least 30 dB from (f0 + 4000 Hz) to (f0 + 5000 Hz) and at least 60 dB above (f0 + 5000 Hz). See figure 6. Group delay time shall not vary by more than 1.0 ms over 80 percent of the passband of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz (575-2775 Hz). Measurements shall be performed end-to-end (transmitter audio input to receiver audio output) with the radio equipment configured in a back-to-back test setup.

NOTE: Although the response values given are for single-channel USB operation, an identical shape, but inverted channel response, is required for LSB or the inverted channel of a dual-channel independent sideband operation.



FIGURE 6. Overall channel response for single-channel or dual-channel equipment.

5.2.7.2 Four-channel operation.

When four-channel independent sideband operation is employed, the four individual 3-kHz channels shall be configured as shown in figure 7, which also shows the amplitude response for these four channels. Channels A2 and B2 shall be inverted and displaced with respect to channels A1 and B1 as shown on the figure. This can be accomplished by using subcarrier frequencies of 6290 Hz above and below the center carrier frequency, or by other suitable techniques that produce the required channel displacements and inversions. The suppression of any subcarriers used shall be at least 40 dB (DO: 50 dB) below the level of a single tone in the A2 or B2 channel modulating the transmitter to 25 percent of peak envelope power (PEP). See figure 7. The rf amplitude versus frequency response for each ISB channel shall be within 2 dB (DO: 1 dB) between 250 Hz and 3100 Hz, referenced to each channel's carrier (either actual or virtual). Referenced from each channel's carrier, the channel attenuation shall be at least 40 dB at 50 Hz and 3250 Hz, and at least 60 dB at -250 Hz and 3550 Hz. Group delay distortion shall not exceed 1500 microseconds over the ranges 370 Hz to 750 Hz and 3000 Hz to 3100 Hz. The distortion shall not exceed 1000 microseconds over the range 750 Hz to 3000 Hz. Group delay distortion shall not exceed 150 microseconds for any 100-Hz frequency increment between 570 Hz and 3000 Hz. Measurements shall be performed end-to-end (transmitter audio input to receiver audio output) with the radio equipment configured in a back-to-back test setup.


FIGURE 7. Overall channel characteristics (four-channel equipment).

5.2.8 Absolute delay.

The absolute delay shall not exceed 10 ms (DO: 5 ms) over the frequency range of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz. Measurements shall be performed back-to-back as in paragraph 5.2.7.1.

5.3 Transmitter characteristics.

5.3.1 Noise and distortion.

5.3.1.1 In-band noise.

Broadband noise in a 1-Hz bandwidth within the selected sideband shall be at least 75 decibels referenced to full-rated peak envelope power (dBc) below the level of the rated PEP of the HF transmitter for fixed station application and 65 dBc below the level of the rated PEP of the HF transmitter for tactical application.

5.3.1.2 Intermodulation distortion (IMD).

The IMD products of HF transmitters produced by any two equal-level signals within the 3 dB bandwidth (a single-frequency audio output) shall be at least 30 dB below either tone for fixed station application and 24 dB below either tone for tactical application when the transmitter is operating at rated PEP. The frequencies of the two audio test signals shall not be harmonically or subharmonically related and shall have a minimum separation of 300 Hz.

5.3.2 Spectral purity.

5.3.2.1 Broadband emissions.

When the transmitter is driven with a single tone to the rated PEP, the power spectral density of the transmitter broadband emission shall not exceed the level established in table III and as shown in figure 8. Discrete spurs shall be excluded from the measurement, and the measurement bandwidth shall be 1 Hz.
 
 

TABLE III. Out-of-band power spectral density limits for radio transmitters.

Frequency (Hz)
Attenuation Below In-Band Power Density (dBc)
fm = fc + (0.5 B + 500)
40 (DO: 43)
fm = fc + 1.0 B
45 (DO: 48)
fm = fc + 2.5 B
60 (DO: 80)
(fc + 4.0 B) < fm < 1.05 fc

0.95 fc < fm < (fc - 4.0 B)

70 (DO: 80)
fm < 0.95 fc

fm > 1.05 fc

90 (DO: 120)

Where: fm = frequency of measurement (Hz)

fc = center frequency of bandwidth (Hz)

B = bandwidth (Hz)



FIGURE 8. Out-of-band power spectral density for HF transmitters.

5.3.2.2 Discrete frequency spurious emissions.

For HF transmitters, when driven with a single tone to produce an rf output of 25 percent rated PEP, all discrete frequency spurious emissions shall be suppressed as follows:

a. For fixed application

See figure 10a.

b. For tactical application

See figure 9.

5.3.3 Carrier suppression.

The suppressed carrier for tactical applications shall be at least 40 dBc (DO: 60 dBc) below the output level of a single tone modulating the transmitter to rated PEP. The suppressed carrier for fixed site applications shall be at least 50 dBc (DO: 60 dBc) below the output level of a single tone modulating the transmitter to rated PEP.

5.3.4 Automatic level control (ALC).

Starting at ALC threshold, an increase of 20 dB in audio input shall result in less than a 1 dB increase in average rf power output.


FIGURE 9. Discrete spurious emissions limit for HF transmitters.

5.3.5 Attack and release time delays.

5.3.5.1 Attack-time delay.

The time interval from keying-on a transmitter until the transmitted rf signal amplitude has increased to 90 percent of its steady-state value shall not exceed 25 ms (DO: 10 ms). This delay excludes any necessary time for automatic antenna tuning.

5.3.5.2 Release-time delay.

The time interval from keying-off a transmitter until the transmitted rf signal amplitude has decreased to 10 percent of its key-on steady-state value shall be 10 ms or less.

5.3.6 Signal input interface characteristics.

5.3.6.1 Input signal power.

Input signal power for microphone or handset input is not standardized. When a line-level input is provided (see paragraph 5.3.6.2), rated transmitter PEP shall be obtainable for single tone amplitudes from ­17 dBm to +6 dBm (manual adjustment permitted).

5.3.6.2 Input audio signal interface.

5.3.6.2.1 Unbalanced interface.
When an unbalanced interface is provided, it shall have an audio input impedance of a nominal 150 ohms, unbalanced with respect to ground, with a minimum return loss of 20 dB against a 150-ohm resistance over the nominal 3 kHz passband.
5.3.6.2.2 Balanced interface.
When a balanced interface is provided, the audio input impedance shall be a nominal 600 ohms, balanced with respect to ground, with a minimum return loss of 26 dB against a 600-ohm resistance over the frequency range of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz. The electrical symmetry shall be sufficient to suppress longitudinal currents at least 40 dB below the reference signal level.

5.3.7 Transmitter output load impedance.

The nominal rf output load impedance at interface point B in figure 2 shall be 50 ohms, unbalanced with respect to ground. Transmitters shall survive any voltage standing wave radio (VSWR) at point B, while derating the output power as a function of increasing VSWR. However, the transmitter shall deliver full rated forward power into a 1.3:1 VSWR load. Figure 11 is a design objective for the derating curve. The VSWR between an exciter and an amplifier shall be less than 1.5:1. The VSWR between an amplifier and an antenna coupler shall be less than 1.5:1 for fixed applications and less than 2.0:1 for tactical application.


FIGURE 10. Output power vs. VSWR for transmitters with broadband output impedance networks.

NOTE: The full-rated output power of a transmitter over the operating frequency range is defined to be (a) the rated PEP when the transmitter is driven by a two-tone signal consisting of equal amplitude tones, and (b) the rated average power when driven by a single tone. The output rating shall be determined with the transmitter operating into a 50-ohm load.

5.4 Receiver characteristics.

5.4.1 Receiver rf characteristics.

All receiver input amplitudes are in terms of available power in dBm from a 50-ohm source impedance signal generator.

5.4.1.1 Image rejection.

The rejection of image signals shall be at least 70 dB for tactical HF receivers and 80 dB for all other HF receivers (DO: 100 dB).

5.4.1.2 Intermediate frequency (IF) rejection.

Spurious signals at the IF (frequencies) shall be rejected by at least 70 dB for tactical HF receivers and 80 dB for all other HF receivers (DO: 100 dB).

5.4.1.3 Adjacent-channel rejection.

The receiver shall reject any signal in the undesired sideband and adjacent channel in accordance with figure 6.

5.4.1.4 Other signal-frequency external spurious responses.

Receiver rejection of spurious frequencies, other than IF and image, shall be at least 65 dB (55 dB for tactical application) for frequencies from +2.5 percent to +30 percent, and from -2.5 percent to -30 percent of the center frequency, and at least 80 dB (70 dB for tactical application) for frequencies beyond +30 percent of the center frequency.

5.4.1.5 Receiver protection.

The receiver, with primary power on or off, shall be capable of survival without damage with applied signals of up to +43 dBm (DO: +53 dBm) available power delivered from a 50-ohm source for a duration of 5 minutes for fixed site applications and 1 minute for tactical applications.

5.4.1.6 Desensitization dynamic range.

The following requirement shall apply to the receiver in an SSB mode of operation with an IF passband setting providing at least 2750 Hz (nominal 3 kHz bandwidth) at the 2 dB points. With the receiver tuning centered on a sinusoidal input test signal and with the test signal level adjusted to produce an output SINAD of 10 dB, a single interfering sinusoidal signal, offset from the test signal by an amount equal to +5 percent of the carrier frequency, is injected into the receiver input. The output SINAD shall not be degraded by more than 1 dB as follows:

a. For fixed site radios, the interfering signal is equal to or less than 100 dB above the test signal level.

b. For tactical radios, the interfering signal is equal to or less than 90 dB above the test signal level.

5.4.1.7 Receiver sensitivity.

The sensitivity of the receiver over the operating frequency range, in the sideband mode of operation (3-kHz bandwidth), shall be such that a -111 dBm (DO: -121 dBm) unmodulated signal at the antenna terminal, adjusted for a 1000 Hz audio output, produces an audio output with a SINAD of at least 10 dB over the operating frequency range.

5.4.1.8 Receiver out-of-band IMD.

Second-order and higher-order responses shall require a two-tone signal amplitude with each tone at -30 dBm or greater (-36 dBm or greater for tactical applications), to produce an output SINAD equivalent to a single -110 dBm tone. This requirement is applicable for equal-amplitude input signals with the closest signal spaced 30 kHz or more from the operating frequency.

5.4.1.9 Third-order intercept point.

Using test signals within the first IF passband, the worst-case third-order intercept point shall not be less than +10 dBm (+1 dBm for tactical applications).

5.4.2 Receiver distortion and internally generated spurious outputs.

5.4.2.1 Overall IMD (in-channel).

The total of IMD products, with two equal-amplitude, in-channel tones spaced 110 Hz apart, present at the receiver rf input, shall meet the following requirements. However, for frequency division multiplex (FDM) service, the receiver shall meet the requirements for any tone spacing equal to or greater than the minimum between adjacent tones in any FDM library. The requirements shall be met for any rf input amplitude up to 0 dBm PEP (-6 dBm/tone) at rated audio output. All IMD products shall be at least 35 dB (DO: 45 dB) below the output level of either of the two tones.

5.4.2.2 Adjacent-channel IMD.

For multiple-channel equipment, the overall adjacent-channel IMD in each 3 kHz channel being measured shall not be greater than -35 dBm at the 3 kHz channel output with all other channels equally loaded with 0 dBm unweighted white noise.

5.4.2.3 Audio frequency total harmonic distortion.

The total harmonic distortion produced by any single-frequency rf test signal, which produces a frequency within the frequency bandwidth of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz shall be at least 25 dB (DO: 35 dB) below the reference tone level with the receiver at rated output level. The rf test signal shall be at least 35 dB above the receiver noise threshold.

5.4.2.4 Internally generated spurious outputs.

For 99 percent of the available 3 kHz channels, internally generated spurious signals shall not exceed -112 dBm. For 0.8 percent of the available 3 kHz channels, spurious signals shall not exceed -100 dBm for tactical applications and -106 dBm for fixed applications. For 0.2 percent of the available 3 kHz channels, spurious signals may exceed these levels.

5.4.3 Automatic gain control (AGC) characteristic.

The steady-state output level of the receiver (for a single tone) shall not vary by more than 3 dB over an rf input range from -103 dBm to +13 dBm for fixed application or -103 dBm to 0 dBm for tactical application.

5.4.3.1 AGC attack time (nondata modes).

The receiver AGC attack time shall not exceed 30 ms.

5.4.3.2 AGC release time (nondata modes).

The receiver AGC release time shall be between 800 and 1200 ms for SSB voice and ICW operation. This shall be the period from rf signal downward transition until audio output is within 3 dB of the steady-state output. The final steady-state audio output is simply receiver noise being amplified in the absence of any rf input signal.

5.4.3.3 AGC requirements for data service.

In data service, the receiver AGC attack time shall not exceed 10 ms. The AGC release time shall not exceed 25 ms.

5.4.4 Receiver linearity.

The following shall apply with the receiver operating at maximum sensitivity, and with a reference input signal that produces a SINAD of 10 dB at the receiver output. The output SINAD shall increase monotonically and linearly within + 1.5 dB for a linear increase in input signal level until the output SINAD is equal to at least 30 dB (DO: 40 dB). When saturation occurs, the output SINAD may vary +3 dB for additional increase in signal level. This requirement shall apply over the operating frequency range of the receiver.

5.4.5 Interface characteristics.

5.4.5.1 Input impedance.

The receiver rf input impedance shall be nominally 50 ohms, unbalanced with respect to ground. The input VSWR, with respect to 50 ohms, shall not exceed 2.5:1 over the operating frequency range.

5.4.5.2 Output impedance and power.

When a balanced output is provided, the receiver output impedance shall be a nominal 600 ohms, balanced with respect to ground, capable of delivering 0 dBm to a 600-ohm load. Electrical symmetry shall be sufficient to suppress longitudinal currents at least 40 dB below reference signal level. The receiver output signal power for operation with a headset or handset shall be adjustable at least over the range from ­30 dBm to 0 dBm. For operation with a speaker, the output level shall be adjustable at least over the range of 0 dBm to +30 dBm. As a DO, an additional interface can accommodate speakers ranging from 4 to 16 ohms impedance should be provided.

5.5 ALE.

5.5.1 Basic ALE (2G).

If ALE is to be implemented, it shall be in accordance with appendix A. The ALE requirements include selective calling and handshake, link quality analysis and channel selection, scanning, and sounding. These requirements are organized in Appendix A as follows:

a. Requirements for ALE implementation are given in sections A-1 through A-4.

b. Detailed requirements on ALE waveform, signal structure protocols, and ALE control function (orderwire messages) are contained in section A-5.

5.5.2 3G ALE.

This improved more capable ALE may be implemented in addition to, but not in lieu of, Basic ALE. The technical requirements for 3G ALE are contained in Appendix C.

5.6 LP.

If linking protection is required to be implemented, it shall be in accordance with appendix B. These requirements are organized in Appendix B as follows:

a. General requirements for LP implementation are given in sections B-1 through B-4.

b. Detailed requirements on how to implement LP are given in section B-5.

c. The unclassified application level (AL-1) is the lowest level of LP and is mandatory for all protected radios implementing LP.

d. The unclassified enhanced application level (AL-2) is the highest level of LP covered in Appendix B. The algorithms for the higher levels of LP, application levels AL-3 and AL-4, are defined in National Security Agency (NSA) classified documents.

e. The 24-bit encryption algorithm for linking protection applies to 2nd generation systems (Appendix B, Annex A) and the SODARK algorithm applies to 3rd generation systems (Appendix B, Annex B).

5.7 ALE control functions (orderwire functions).

See Appendix A, paragraphs A 5.6 and A 5.7.

5.8 Networking functions.

See Appendix D.

5.9 Network management.

See Appendix D.

5.10 HF application interface.

See Appendix E.

5.11 Data link protocol.

See Appendix F.

5.12 Anti-jam capability.

See Appendix G.

5.13 Automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol.

See Appendix H.

6. NOTES.

This section contains information of a general or explanatory nature that may be helpful, but is not mandatory.

6.1 Intended use.

a. This standard contains requirements to ensure interoperability of new radio equipment with long-haul and tactical application in the medium frequency (MF) band and in the high frequency (HF) band.

b. There is no requirement for linking protection to be a part of a user's acquisition unless the user has an identified need. Optional levels of linking protection are identified and detailed. Options AL-1 and AL-2 provide an inexpensive, least protected mode, and AL-3 and AL-4 provide more sophisticated protection modes. The users should establish their application level based on minimum essential requirements.

c. There is no requirement for the user to acquire any of the advanced technology defined in the appendices to this document unless the user has an identified requirement.

6.2 Interaction matrix.

The complexity of the adaptive features and functions may be confusing to the user of this standard. Certain parts of the technical features are dependent on other features defined within this standard and MIL-STD-187-721. This dependency is not always apparent to the user or the acquisition activity. The following matrix provides the interaction dependencies known, as of the publication date.

6.3 Issue of DODISS.

When this standard is used in acquisition, the applicable issue of the DODISS must be cited in the solicitation (see 2.2.1 and 2.2.2).

6.4 Subject term (key word) listing.

Adaptive communications

AJ mode

ALE

ALE control functions

ALE message protocol

ALE mode

ALE

Automatic sounding

Baseline mode

Deep interleaving

Forward error correction

Golay coding

Leading redundant word

Linking protection

LQA

Network functions

Network management

Protection interval

Radio frequency scanning

Selective calling

Slotted responses

Star net and group

Triple redundant words

Word phase

6.5 International standardization agreements.

Certain provisions of this standard in paragraphs 4.2, 4.4, 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4 are the subject of international standardization agreements, STANAGs 4203 and 5035, and QSTG 733. When change notice, revision, or cancellation of this standard is proposed that will modify the international agreement concerned, the preparing activity will take appropriate action through international standardization channels, including departmental standardization offices, to change the agreement or make other appropriate accommodations.

6.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.

All services and agencies are responsible for their own EMC programs, which are driven by their user requirements and doctrine.

HF radio has significant inherent EMC implications that requires serious consideration by designers, users, and acquisition personnel. It is strongly recommended that all users of this standard refer to the following documents prior to design or acquisition of HF radio systems or equipment:

a. MIL-STD-461, Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interface Emissions and Susceptibility.

b. MIL-STD-462, Measurement of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics.

c. MIL-HDBK-237, Electromagnetic Compatibility Management Guide for Platform, Systems and Equipment.

The applicable portions of these documents should be included in any acquisition actions for HF radio systems or equipment.
 

Interaction matrix: General features.

Feature
Paragraph
Requires
Notes
1. Automated Network Management Appendix D

MIL-STD-188-141 D.4.4 and D.5.3

HNMP [28] and HF MIB [29]
2. Remote Control Of Station Equipment * HNMP [28] and HF MIB [29] *Feature supported, but no paragraph with this title.
3. Remote Data Fill HNMP [28] and HF MIB [29] *Feature supported, but no paragraph with this title
4. Any-Media Networking Appendix D

MIL-STD-188-141

D.4.5 and D.5.5

IP [14], AME [24] (for use of HF) HRMP [26] and HSSP [27] (for topology monitoring) Robust networking using all available media CONEX [19] is also useful. Robust networking using all available media; CONEX [19] is also useful.
5. Fully-Automated Message Handling * Message Store and Forward [22], Route Selection [20] *Level 2 HFNC [16] provides the features for fully-automated (but not adaptive) message handling.
6. Adaptive Routing * Routing Queries [7] *Path Quality Matrix [18] and CONEX [19] provide increased functionality, with increased overhead.
7. Routing Queries MIL-STD-188-141

D.5.2.6.6.1

HRMP [26]
8. Connectivity Monitoring MIL-STD-188-141

D.5.2.6.6.3

HRMP [26] HSSP [27] recommended also.
9. Repeater Control MIL-STD-188-141

D.5.2.6.6.2

HRMP [26]
10. Full-Duplex Independent Operation 5.6.3 Frequency Select Command [35]
11. Internet Services * TCP [12] *For example, FTP, SMTP, Telnet (defined in RFCs)
12. TCP * IP [14] and either 3G Data Link Protocol [62] (preferred) or HFDLP [32] *Defined in RFC-793 Do not use over HF channels without an ARQ protocol.
13. UDP * IP [14] *Defined in RFC-768
14. IP * AME [24] For use of HF, HFNC [16] *Defined in RFC-791 (ICMP in RFC-792)
15. Indirect Calling 4.8 and D.5.2.2 ALE controller (for Link Establishment) Level 2 (or higher) HFNC [16] recommended for selection alternate station.
16. HFNC D.4.2 (See Table D-II for levels of functional capability) Requires at least one link controller, including ALE, HFDLP [32], or other media. SDLP [31] recommended for link controller interface. FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP [32] recommended for message transfer over HF links (versus ALE modem with DTM [49] or DBM [48])
17. Routing Table D.4.2.1.1

D.5.2.1.2

HFNC [16]
18. Path Quality Matrix D.4.2.1.2

D.5.2.1.1

HFNC [16] CONEX [19] may be used to dynamically update path qualities.
19. Conex D.5.2.4 Network Layer Header [21] Normally uses Path Quality Matrix [18]; may instead use only link control.
20. Route Selection D.4.2.1.3 Routing Table [17]
21. Network Layer Header 5.7.3 HFNC [16]

Interaction matrix: General features (continued).

Feature
Paragraph
Requires
Notes
22. Message Store And Forward D.4.2.3

D.5.2.5.2

AME [24]
23. Null Store And Forward D.5.2.5.3 AME [24]
24. AME D.4.2.4 AME Protocol [25], and either Message Store and Forward [22] or Null Store and Forward [23] Automatic Message Exchange
25. AME Protocol D.5.2.5.1

D.5.2.5.4

Network Layer Header [21] Automatic Message Exchange. Works best with 3G modems and protocols [60] or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP [32].
26. HRMP D.5.2.6 Network Layer Header [21] HF Relay Management Protocol. Works best with 3G modems and protocols [60] or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP [32].
27. HSSP D.5.2.7 Network Layer Header [21] HF Station Status Protocol. Works best with 3G modems and protocols [60] or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP [32].
28. HNMP D.5.3.2 AME [24] for HF Links; UDP [13] and IP [14] when using Internet; UDP+IP+AME when internetworking via HF. HF Network Management Protocol. Works best with 3G modems and protocols [60] or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP [32].
29. HF MIB D.5.3.3 and 

Appendix H

30. Interface to Link Controllers 4.2.8 SDLP [31] recommended protocol for interface to link controllers.
31. SDLP D.5.4 Station Data Link Protocol
32. HFDLP Appendix H MIL-STD-188-110-serial-tone modem. FS-1052 HF Data Link Protocol will work over other modems, but is optimized for the 
MIL-STD-188-110 serial-tone modem.
33. LP B.4.1, B.4.1.1, B.5.1, B.5.2

B.5.2.2.2

Time Exchange Protocol [34] (for synchronization).
34. Time Exchange Protocol B.4.1, B.4.1.1, B.5.1, B.5.2 Time service protocol is usually sufficient for LP.
35. Frequency Select Command 5.6.3 ALE Controller, Frequency Designators [36]
36. Frequency Designators A.5.6.4.1 ALE Controller
37. Channel Designators 5.3b

A.5.6.4.1

ALE Controller
38. LQA Matrix 5.4.1 At least one source of data: Basic LQA [51], Polling [41], LQA Reporting [45], or ALQA [47]. LQA Matrix is required in MIL-STD-188-141 ALE controllers.
39. Passive LQA 5.4.1 ALE Controller
40. Sounding 4.4.2 ALE Controller
41. Polling 5.4.2 At least one Polling Protocol from [24-26]
42. Individual Poll 5.4.3.1 ALE Controller
43. Multistation, Single-channel Polling 5.4.3.2 ALE Controller that supports Star Net Calls [53] or Star Group Calls [52]

Interaction matrix: General features (continued)

Feature
Paragraph
Requires
Notes
44. Two-station, Single-channel Polling 5.4.3.3 ALE Controller Frequency Designators [36] or Channel Designator [37] required to select channels outside current scan list.
45. ALQA Reporting 4.4.3 LQA Report Protocol [46]
46. LQA Report Protocol 5.4.4 MIL-STD-188-141 ALE Controller with LQA Matrix [38], and either DTM [49] OR DBM [48]. Frequency Designators [36] or Channel Designators [37] required to report channels outside current scan list.
47. ALQA 4.5, 5.5 ALE Controller Advanced LQA
48. DBM A.5.7.4 ALE Controller Data Block Message Greater throughput than DTM [49], but less than FED-STD-1052
49. DTM A.5.7.3 ALE Controller Data Text Message.
50. AMD A.5.7.2 ALE Controller Automatic Message Display
51. LQA A.5.4.1

A.5.4.2

ALE Controller Link Quality Analysis
52. Star Group Calls A.5.5.4 ALE Controller
53. Star Net Calls A.5.5.3 ALE Controller
54. Individual Calls A.5.5.2 ALE Controller
55. Allcalls A.5.5.5 Individual Calls
56. Anycalls A.5.5.6 Individual Calls
57. Wildcard Addressing A.5.2.4.8 Individual Calls
58. Sounding A.5.3 ALE Controller
59. HF E-mail E.4.2 TCP [12] and/or 3G protocols [60] Electronic mail over HF
60. 3G Link Automation Appendix C 3G ALE [61], 3G Data Link Protocols [62], and 3G Modem [63] High performance protocol suite for large networks and data applications.
61. 3G ALE C.4.6, C.5.2 3G Modem (BW0) [63] 3G ALE.
62. 3G Data Link C.4.7 3G ALE [61], 3G TM [64], 3G ARQ [65], 3G CLC [66], 3G Modem [63] High performance data link protocols, including ability to engage NATO protocols
63. 3G Modem C.5.1 Radio Scalable suite of waveforms for various channel conditions.
64. 3G TM C.5.3 3G ALE [61], 3G Modem (BW1) [63] Traffic Management protocol; coordinates transitions from ALE to traffic protocol.
65. 3G ARQ C.5.4, C.5.5 3G ALE [61], 3G TM [64], 3G Modem (BW1-4) [63] High rate and robust automatic repeat request (reliable) data link protocols.
66. 3G CLC  C.5.6 3G ALE [61], 3G TM [64] Circuit Link Control (for circuit or "hard" links).