1. This standard is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies
of the Department of Defense (DoD).
2. In accordance with DoD Instruction 4630.8, it is DoD policy that
all forces for joint and combined operations be supported through compatible,
interoperable, and integrated Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
(C3I) systems. Furthermore, all C3I systems developed for use by U.S. forces
are considered to be for joint use. The director of the Defense Information
Systems Agency (DISA) serves as DoD's single point of contact for developing
information technology standards to achieve interoperability and compatibility.
All C3I systems and equipment shall conform to technical and procedural
standards for interface, interoperability, and compatibility, as recommended
3. MIL-STDs in the 188 series (MIL-STD-188-XXX) address telecommunication
design parameters based on proven technologies. These MIL-STDs are to be
used in all new DoD systems and equipment, or major upgrades thereto, to
ensure interoperability. The MIL-STD-188 series is subdivided into a MIL-STD-188-100
series, covering common standards for tactical and long-haul communications;
a MIL-STD-188-200 series, covering standards for tactical communications
only; and a MIL-STD-300 series, covering standards for long-haul communications
only. Emphasis is being placed on the development of common standards for
tactical and long-haul communications (the MIL-STD-188-100 series). The
MIL-STD-188 series may be based on, or make reference to, Joint Technical
Architecture, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, International
Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
recommendations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization
Agreements (STANAG), and other standards wherever applicable.
4. This document contains technical standards and design objectives
for medium- and
high-frequency radio systems. Included are: (1) the basic radio parameters
to support both conventional and adaptive radio communications; and (2)
technical parameters for automatic link establishment (ALE), linking protection,
and other advanced adaptive features and functions.
5. The technical parameters in certain identified paragraphs have not
(as of the date of publication) been verified by testing or implementation.
These parameters have, however, been subjected to rigorous simulation and
computer modeling. The DoD working group and the Technical Advisory Committee
(TAC) are confident that these features, functions, and parameters are
technically valid. The un-tested portion of the technology are marked (NT)
following the title of each paragraph containing un-tested material.
6. Users of this MIL-STD should note that there is no proprietary or
otherwise restricted use material in this document. This document is for
unrestricted DoD, federal, and industry use.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SCOPE. 11.1 Scope. 11.2 Applicability. 11.3 Application guidance.
12. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS. 12.1 General. 12.2 Government documents. 12.2.1
Specifications, standards, and handbooks. 12.2.2 Other Government documents,
drawings, and publications. 22.3 Non-Government publications. 22.4 Order
of precedence. 33. DEFINITIONS. 33.1 Terms. 33.2 Abbreviations and acronyms.
44.1 General. 54.1.1 Equipment parameters. 64.1.2 Basic HF radio parameters.
64.2 Equipment operation mode. 74.2.1 Baseline mode. 22.214.171.124 Single-channel.
126.96.36.199 Multichannel. 84.2.2 Push-to-talk operation. 84.2.3 ALE mode.
84.2.4 Anti-jam (AJ) mode. 84.2.5 Linking protection (LP). 94.3 Interface
parameters. 94.3.1 Electrical characteristics of digital interfaces. 94.3.2
Electrical characteristics of analog interfaces. 94.3.3 Modulation and
data signaling rates. 94.4 NATO and Quadripartite interoperability requirements.
94.4.1 Single-channel communications systems. 94.4.2 Maritime air communications
systems. 94.4.3 High-performance HF data modems. 104.4.4 QSTAGs. 104.5
Adaptive communications. 104.6 Linking protection. 114.7 HF data link protocol.
114.8 Networking functions. 114.8.1 Indirect calling and relaying. 114.8.2
Network management. 12TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued)PARAGRAPH PAGE4.9 Application
protocols for HF radio networks. 125. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS. 155.1 General.
155.1.1 Introduction. 155.1.2 Signal and noise relationships. 155.2 Common
equipment characteristics. 155.2.1 Displayed frequency. 155.2.2 Frequency
coverage. 155.2.3 Frequency accuracy. 155.2.4 Phase stability. 155.2.5
Phase noise. 155.2.6 Bandwidths. 185.2.7 Overall channel responses. 188.8.131.52
Single-channel or dual-channel operation. 184.108.40.206 Four-channel operation.
195.2.8 Absolute delay. 225.3 Transmitter characteristics. 225.3.1 Noise
and distortion. 220.127.116.11 In-band noise. 18.104.22.168 Intermodulation distortion
(IMD). 225.3.2 Spectral purity. 22.214.171.124 Broadband emissions. 126.96.36.199
Discrete frequency spurious emissions. 245.3.3 Carrier suppression. 255.3.4
Automatic level control (ALC). 255.3.5 Attack and release time delays.
2188.8.131.52 Attack-time delay. 2184.108.40.206 Release-time delay. 275.3.6 Signal
input interface characteristics. 2220.127.116.11 Input signal power. 218.104.22.168
Input audio signal interface. 222.214.171.124.1 Unbalanced interface. 2126.96.36.199.2
Balanced interface. 275.3.7 Transmitter output load impedance. 275.4 Receiver
characteristics. 295.4.1 Receiver rf characteristics. 2188.8.131.52 Image rejection.
2184.108.40.206 Intermediate frequency (IF) rejection. 2220.127.116.11 Adjacent-channel
rejection. 218.104.22.168 Other signal-frequency external spurious responses.
222.214.171.124 Receiver protection. 29TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued)PARAGRAPH
PAGE126.96.36.199 Desensitization dynamic range. 2188.8.131.52 Receiver sensitivity.
305.4.1.8 Receiver out-of-band IMD. 305.4.1.9 Third-order intercept point.
305.4.2 Receiver distortion and internally generated spurious outputs.
305.4.2.1 Overall IMD (in-channel). 305.4.2.2 Adjacent-channel IMD. 305.4.2.3
Audio frequency total harmonic distortion. 305.4.2.4 Internally generated
spurious outputs. 305.4.3 Automatic gain control (AGC) characteristic.
3184.108.40.206 AGC attack time (nondata modes). 3220.127.116.11 AGC release time (nondata
modes). 318.104.22.168 AGC requirements for data service. 315.4.4 Receiver linearity.
315.4.5 Interface characteristics. 322.214.171.124 Input impedance. 3126.96.36.199
Output impedance and power. 315.5 ALE. 325.5.1 Basic ALE (Second Generation).
325.5.2 Third Generation ALE. 325.6 LP. 325.7 ALE control functions (orderwire
functions). 325.8 Networking functions. 325.9 Network management. 325.10
HF application interface. 325.11 Data link protocol. 335.12 Anti-jam capability.
335.13 ARQ protocol. 336. NOTES. 336.1 Intended use. 336.2 Interaction
matrix. 336.3 Issue of DODISS. 336.4 Subject term (key word) listing. 336.5
International standardization agreements. 346.6 Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) requirements. 34Interaction matrix: General features. 36
TABLE I. Relaying alternative notes. 14TABLE II. Bandwidths. 18TABLE
III. Out-of-band power spectral density limits for radio transmitters.
23TABLE OF CONTENTS
FIGURE 1. Physical layer with transceiver and modem elements. 7FIGURE
2. Radio subsystems interface points. 10FIGURE 3. Relaying alternatives.
13FIGURE 4. Phase noise limit mask for fixed site and transportable long-haul
radio transmitters. 16FIGURE 5. Phase noise limit mask for tactical radio
transmitters. 17FIGURE 6. Overall channel response for single-channel or
dual-channel equipment. 19FIGURE 7. Overall channel characteristics (four-channel
equipment). 21FIGURE 8. Out-of-band power spectral density for HF transmitters.
24FIGURE 9. Discrete spurious emissions limit for HF transmitters. 26FIGURE
10. Output power vs. VSWR for transmitters with broadband output impedance
Appendix A. Automatic Link Establishment System
Appendix B. Linking Protection 236
Appendix C. Third Generation HF Link Automation
Appendix D. HF Radio Networking 446
Appendix E. Application Protocols for HF Radio
Appendix F. Anti-jam and Anti-interference
Appendix G. HF Data Link Protocol 514
Appendix H. Management Information Base for
Automated HF Radio Networks 516
Appendix I. Supporting Technical Rationale
The purpose of this document is to establish technical performance and
interface parameters in the form of firm requirements and optional design
objectives (DO) that are considered necessary to ensure interoperability
and interface of new long-haul and tactical radio systems in the medium
frequency (MF) band and in the high frequency (HF) band. It is also the
purpose of this document to establish a level of performance for new radio
equipment as is considered necessary to satisfy the requirements of the
majority of users. These technical parameters, therefore, represent a minimum
set of interoperability, interface, and performance standards. The technical
parameters of this document may be exceeded in order to satisfy certain
specific requirements, provided that interoperability is maintained. That
is, the capability to incorporate features such as additional standard
and nonstandard interfaces is not precluded.
This standard is approved for use within the Department of Defense (DoD)
in the design and development of new MF and HF radio systems. It is not
intended that existing equipment and systems be immediately converted to
comply with the provisions of this standard. New equipment and systems,
and those undergoing major modification or rehabilitation, shall conform
to this standard. If deviation from this standard is required, the user
should contact the lead standardization activity for waiver procedures.
1.3 Application guidance.
The terms "system standard" and "design objective" are defined in FED-STD-1037.
In this document, the word "shall" identifies firm requirements. The word
"should" identifies design objectives that are desirable but not mandatory.
2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS.
The documents listed in this section are specified in sections 3, 4, and
5 of this standard. This section does not include documents cited in other
sections of this standard, those recommended for additional information,
or those used as examples. While every effort has been made to ensure the
completeness of this list, document users are cautioned that they must
meet all specified requirements documents cited in sections 3, 4, and 5
of this standard, whether or not they are listed.
2.2 Government documents.
2.2.1 Specifications, standards, and handbooks.
The following specifications, standards, and handbooks form a part of this
document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the
issues of these documents are those listed in the issue of the Department
of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) and supplement
thereto cited in the solicitation (see paragraph 6.3).
||Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunications Terms
||DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
||Interoperability and Performance Standards for HF Data
||Electrical Characteristics of Digital Interface Circuits
||(S) Interoperability Standard for Anti-Jam (AJ) Communications
in the High Frequency Band
(2-30 MHz) (U)
(Unless otherwise indicated, copies of the above specifications, standards,
and handbooks are available from the Standardization Document Order Desk,
700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)
2.2.2 Other Government documents, drawings,
The following other Government documents, drawings, and publications form
a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise
specified, the issues are those cited in the solicitation.
||U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
||National Telecommunications and Information Administration
||NTIA Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio
(Applications for copies should be addressed to the U.S. Department
of Commerce, NTIA, Room 4890, 14th and Constitution Ave. N.W., Washington,
2.3 Non-Government publications.
The following documents form a part of this document to the extent specified
herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the documents which have
been adopted by DoD are those listed in the issues of the DODISS cited
in the solicitation. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the documents
not listed in the DODISS are the issues of the documents cited in the solicitation
(see paragraph 6.3).
|INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS
||North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization
||Technical Standards for Single Channel HF Radio Equipment
||Introduction of an Improved System for Maritime Air Communications
on HF, LF, and UHF
(Applications for copies should be addressed to: Standardization Document
Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)
||Quadripartite Standardization Agreements (QSTAGs)
||Technical Standards for Single Channel High Frequency Radio
(Application for copies should be addressed to: Standardization Document
Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave. Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.)
||International Telecommunications Union (ITU),
||CCIR Recommendations 455-2
||Improved Transmission System for HF Radiotelephone Circuits
(Application for copies should be addressed to the General Secretariat,
International Telecommunications Union, Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva
(Non-Government standards and other publications are normally available
from the organizations that prepare or distribute the documents. These
documents also may be available in or through libraries or other informational
2.4 Order of precedence.
In the event of a conflict between the text of this document and the references
cited herein, the text of this document takes precedence. Nothing in this
document, however, supersedes applicable laws and regulations unless a
specific exemption has been obtained.
Definitions of terms used in this document shall be as specified in the
current edition of
FED-STD-1037, except where inconsistent with the use in this standard.
In addition, the following definitions are applicable for the purpose of
High-performance HF data modem. High-speed (capable of at least
1200 bits per second) or robust data modes which incorporate sophisticated
techniques for correcting or reducing the number of raw (over-the-air induced)
Phase noise (dBc/Hertz (Hz)). The amount of single-sided phase
noise, contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth, produced by a carrier (signal generation)
source, and referenced in decibels below the full (unsuppressed) carrier
Second generation automatic link establishment (2G ALE). ALE
as first technically described in Appendix A of this document.
Third generation automatic link establishment (3G ALE). ALE as
first technically described in Appendix C of this document.
3.2 Abbreviations and acronyms.
The abbreviations and acronyms used in this document are defined below.
Those listed in the current edition of FED-STD-1037 have been included
for the convenience of the reader.
||second generation automatic link establishment
||third generation automatic link establishment
||American, British, Canadian, Australian
||automatic gain control
||automatic level control
||automatic link establishment
||American National Standards Institute
||automatic repeat request
||Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
||International Radio Consultative Committee
||decibels referenced to full-rated peak envelope power
||Defense Information Infrastructure
||Defense Information Systems Agency
||Defense Information Systems Agency Circular
||Department of Defense
||Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards
||frequency division multiplex
||forward error correction
||HF Network Controller
||interrupted continuous wave
||International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication
||link quality analysis
||North Atlantic Treaty Organization
||narrowband frequency modulation
||National Security Agency
||National Telecommunications and Information Administration
||Quadripartite Standard Agreement
||signal-plus-noise-plus-distortion to noise-plus-distortion
||Technical Advisory Committee
||voltage standing wave radio
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.
By convention, frequency band allocation for the MF band is from 0.3 megahertz
(MHz) to 3 MHz and the HF band is from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. However, for military
purposes, equipment designed for HF band use has been historically designed
with frequency coverage extending into the MF band. For new HF equipment,
HF band standard parameters shall apply to any portion of the MF band included
as extended coverage. Currently there are no known military requirements
below 1.5 MHz. Consequently, this portion of the MF band is not standardized.
4.1.1 Equipment parameters.
Equipment parameters will be categorized using functional use groups for
radio assemblages/sets. Historically, these groups have been fixed (long-haul)
installations and tactical systems. The tactical sets are subgrouped further
into vehicle transportable and manpack versions. Although these distinctions
still exist in principle, the former lines of distinction have become somewhat
blurred. The mobility of current military forces dictates that a significant
number of long-haul requirements will be met with transportable systems,
and in some cases, such systems are implemented with design components
shared with manpack radios. When such "tactical" equipment is used to meet
a long-haul requirement, the equipment shall meet long-haul minimum performance
4.1.2 Basic HF radio parameters.
Basic HF radio parameters are contained in this section and in section
5. HF technology going beyond the basic radio is contained in the appendices.
Figure 1 shows the relationship of the functional aspects of current HF
technology in terms of the Seven Layer Reference Model. The shaded area
in figure 1 indicates coverage in this section and section 5.
FIGURE 1. Physical layer with transceiver
and modem elements.
4.2 Equipment operation mode.
4.2.1 Baseline mode.
Frequency control of all new HF equipment, except manpack, shall be capable
of being stabilized by an external standard. Should multiple-frequency
(channel) storage be incorporated, it shall be of the programmable-memory
type and be capable of storing/initializing the operational mode (see paragraphs
188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 below, and paragraph A.4.3.1 of Appendix A) associated
with each particular channel.
All new single-channel HF equipment shall provide, as a minimum, the capability
for the following one-at-a-time selectable operational modes:
a. One nominal 3-kiloHertz (kHz) channel upper sideband (USB) or lower
sideband (LSB) (selectable).
b. One (rate-dependent bandwidth) interrupted continuous wave (ICW)
c. A narrowband frequency modulation (NBFM) channel capability should
be included as a DO.
*Not mandatory for radios designed for ALE.
All new multichannel HF equipment shall provide a single channel capability
as set forth in paragraph 220.127.116.11, as a minimum, and one or more of the
following modes, selectable one at a time:
a. Two nominal 3-kHz channels in the USB and LSB (two independent channels
in the same sideband--sideband selectable).
b. One nominal 6-kHz channel in the USB or LSB (selectable).
c. Two nominal 3-kHz channels in the USB and two in the LSB (four independent
3-kHz channels two in each sideband).
d. One nominal 6-kHz channel in the USB and one in the LSB (two independent
6-kHz channels--one in each sideband).
e. One nominal 3-kHz channel in the USB and one in the LSB (two independent
3-kHz channels--one in each sideband).
4.2.2 Push-to-talk operation.
Push-to-talk (PTT) operation is the most common form
of interaction with MF/HF single sideband (SSB) radios, especially for
tactical use by minimally trained, "noncommunicator" operators. Manual
control with PTT shall be conventional; that is, the operator pushes the
PTT button to talk and releases it to listen.
4.2.3 ALE mode.
Should an ALE capability be included, it shall be of the channel-scanning
type and shall provide for contact initiation by either or both manual
and automated control. Detailed requirements are in Appendix A. See 4.5
for the list of features required to support this operational mode.
4.2.4 Anti-jam (AJ) mode.
If AJ is to be implemented, the AJ capabilities and features for HF radios
shall be in accordance with MIL-STD-188-148 and Appendix F, Anti-jam and
4.2.5 Linking protection (LP).
If LP is to be implemented, the LP capabilities and features for HF radios
shall be in accordance with Appendix B.
4.3 Interface parameters.
4.3.1 Electrical characteristics of digital
As a minimum, any incorporated interfaces for serial binary data shall
be in accordance with the provisions of MIL-STD-188-114, and any other
interfaces specified by the contracting agencies. Such interfaces shall
include provisions for request-to-send and clear-to-send signaling. The
capability to accept additional standard interfaces is not precluded.
4.3.2 Electrical characteristics of analog
See 5.3.6 and 5.4.5.
4.3.3 Modulation and data signaling rates.
The modulation rate (expressed in baud (Bd))
or the data signaling rate (expressed in bits per second (b/s)) at interface
points A and A' in figure 2 shall include those contained in
4.4 NATO and Quadripartite interoperability
4.4.1 Single-channel communications systems.
If interoperation with NATO member nations is required for land, air, and
maritime applications, single-channel HF radio equipment shall comply with
the applicable requirements of the current edition of STANAG 4203.
4.4.2 Maritime air communications systems.
If interoperation with NATO member nations is required, HF maritime air
communications shall comply with the applicable requirements of the current
edition of STANAG 5035.
FIGURE 2. Radio subsystems interface
4.4.3 High-performance HF data modems.
If interoperation with NATO member nations is required, land, air, and
maritime, single-channel HF radio equipment shall comply with the applicable
requirements of the appropriate STANAG.
If interoperation among American, British, Canadian, Australian (ABCA),
and New Zealand Armies is required, HF combat net radio equipment shall
comply with the applicable requirements of the current edition of QSTAG
4.5 Adaptive communications.
Adaptive HF describes any HF communications system that has the ability
to sense its communications environment, and, if required, to automatically
adjust operations to improve communications performance. Should the user
elect to incorporate adaptive features, they shall be in accordance with
the requirements for those features stated in this document.
The essential adaptive features are:
a. Channel (frequency) scanning capability.
b. ALE using an embedded selective calling capability. A disabling capability
and a capability to inhibit responses shall be included.
c. Automatic sounding (station-identifiable transmissions). A capability
to disable sounding and a capability to inhibit responses shall be included.
d. Limited link quality analysis (LQA) for assisting the ALE function:
(1) Relative data error assessment.
(2) Relative signal-plus-noise-plus-distortion to noise-plus-distortion
(3) Multipath/distortion assessment (DO) (optional).
e. Automatic link maintenance
f. Channel occupancy
4.6 Linking protection.
LP refers to the protection of the linking function required to establish,
control, maintain, and terminate the radio link. Because this protection
is applied to the link establishment function, LP is a data link layer
function in terms of the Seven Layer Reference Model. Figure B-1, Appendix
B shows a conceptual model of the MIL-STD-188-141 data link layer functions,
showing the placement within the data link layer at which linking protection
shall be implemented. Voice transmissions or data transmissions from external
modems are not affected by the LP. The LP application levels and their
corresponding protection interval (PI) are defined in Appendix B, paragraphs
B 4.1.1 through B 18.104.22.168.
4.7 HF data link protocol.
See Appendix G, HF Data Link Protocol and MIL-STD-188-110.
4.8 Networking functions.
a. MILSTD-188-141 establishes the technology baseline needed for establishing
and maintaining links among HF radio stations. Networking technology augments
this direct connection capability with the ability to find and use indirect
b. The functions performed at the network layer may be grouped into
two broad categories: routing functions and data management functions.
Routing functions select paths through the network for voice and data traffic,
using stored information (provided by operators, local data link controllers,
and remote networking controllers) about the quality of available links
to other stations. Data management functions acquire and communicate that
(and other) information.
c. Link-level error statistics directly characterize the quality of
single-link paths and are used to compute end-to-end path quality for multiple-link
paths through relays. These results are stored in a path quality matrix
(PQM), which is organized to provide the path quality to any reachable
destination via each directly-reachable relay station. From this path quality
data, a routing table (RT) is formed. This table lists the best path to
each reachable station for various types of communication (e.g., voice
4.8.1 Indirect calling and relaying.
When a station cannot directly link with a desired destination, other stations
may be employed to assist in getting the message through. The simplest
option is to have the local link controller or
the HF Network Controller (HFNC) establish a link with a station other
than the desired destination so that the station operators can manually
communicate (using either voice or data orderwire) after the fashion of
a torntape relay. When the equipment at the intermediate station is
able to automatically establish an indirect path to the destination, this
is termed relaying. A variety of relaying techniques are possible, some
of which are shown in figure 3. These techniques are differentiated where
the cross-connection occurs in the protocol stack. Each alternative is
briefly discussed in table I.
4.8.2 Network management.
See Appendix D, HF Radio Networking, and Appendix H, Management Information
4.9 Application protocols for HF radio networks.
See Appendix E, Application Protocols for HF Radio Networks.
FIGURE 3. Relaying alternatives.
TABLE I. Relaying alternative notes.
Radio Frequency (RF) echo
No radios required. Examples: float a large aluminized
balloon or use a billboard reflector.
||Formed by connecting an RF amplifier between
two antennas. Uses different radio frequencies by heterodyning or translating
the received frequencies.
||Formed by connecting two radios back-to-back
through the audio ports. This and all following relays can easily use different
||Formed by connecting data ports of modems.
Regenerates audio and bit timing.
||Occurs just above forward error correction
(FEC) sublayer (and below LP). Corrects errors in data words but does not
examine those words or otherwise manipulate their contents. Introduces
one word time delay.
||Occurs within data link protocol sublayer.
Like word repeater, but buffers an entire frame before retransmitting it;
introduces delay of frame time plus time to detect the end of the frame.
This and all following relays require only one radio, but can use more
||Occurs just above data link layer. Effectively
connects data links in tandem as directed by indirect addresses in data
link frames. Makes no routing decisions; merely implements the routing
scheme specified in frames that it receives (hence the name).
||Network layer function. Determines where
to send each received frame using local routing information; this routing
information may be entirely static or it may include real-time data (in
an adaptive router). Uses network layer message header; normally has access
only to message section of data link layer (e.g., ALE) frame. May buffer
data when no path currently exists to destination.
||Application layer function. Stores messages
for later retrieval by specified recipient.
||Application layer function. Stores messages
for later retrieval by anyone with access to that bulletin board system.
5. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS.
This section provides detailed performance standards for MF and HF radio
equipment. These performance standards shall apply over the appropriate
frequency range from 2.0 MHz to 29.9999 MHz (DO: 1.5 MHz to 29.9999 MHz).
5.1.2 Signal and noise relationships.
The signal and noise relationships are expressed as SINAD, unless otherwise
identified. Unless otherwise specified, when the ratio is stated, the noise
bandwidth is 3 kHz.
5.2 Common equipment characteristics.
These characteristics shall apply to each transmitter and to each receiver
unless otherwise specified.
5.2.1 Displayed frequency.
The displayed frequency shall be that of the carrier, whether suppressed
5.2.2 Frequency coverage.
The radio equipment shall be capable of operating over the frequency range
of 2.0 MHz to 29.9999 MHz in a maximum of 100-Hz frequency increments (DO:
10-Hz) for single-channel equipment, and 10-Hz frequency increments (DO:
1-Hz) for multichannel equipment.
5.2.3 Frequency accuracy.
The accuracy of the radio carrier frequency, including tolerance and long-term
stability, but not any variation due to doppler shift, shall be within
Hz for tactical application and within +10 Hz for all others, during
a period of not less than 30 days. If tactical system include long haul
interoperability mission, tactical equipment must meet +10 Hz radio
carrier frequency specification.
5.2.4 Phase stability.
The phase stability shall be such that the probability that the phase difference
will exceed 5 degrees over any two successive 10 millisecond (ms) periods
(13.33-ms periods may also be used) shall be less than 1 percent. Measurements
shall be performed over a sufficient number of adjacent periods to establish
the specified probability with a confidence of at least 95 percent.
5.2.5 Phase noise.
The synthesizer and mixer phase-noise spectrum at the transmitter output
shall not exceed those limits as depicted in figures 4 and 5 under continuous
carrier single-tone output conditions. Figure 4 depicts the limits of phase
noise for cosited and non-cosited fixed-site and transportable long-haul
radio transmitters. Figure 5 depicts the limits for tactical radio transmitters.
If tactical system include long haul interoperability mission, tactical
equipment must meet +10 Hz radio carrier frequency specification.
FIGURE 4. Phase noise limit mask for
fixed site and transportable long-haul radio transmitters.
FIGURE 5. Phase noise limit mask for
tactical radio transmitters.
The bandwidths for high frequency band emissions shall be as shown in table
II. Use of other HF band emissions is optional, however, if selected, shall
be as shown in table II. Other high frequency band emissions, which may
be required to satisfy specific user requirements, can be found in the
NTIA Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management.
TABLE II. Bandwidths.
Maximum Allowable 3 decibels (dB) Bandwidth (kHz)
Frequency-shift keying (FSK)
Independent-sideband (ISM) modulation
|* Not mandatory for radios designed for ALE.
5.2.7 Overall channel responses.
22.214.171.124 Single-channel or dual-channel operation.
The amplitude vs. frequency response between (f0 + 300 Hz) and
(f0 + 3050 Hz) shall be within 3 dB (total) where f0
is the carrier frequency. The attenuation shall be at least 20 dB from
f0 to (f0 - 415 Hz), at least 40 dB from (f0
- 415 Hz) to (f0 - 1000 Hz), and at least 60 dB below (f0
- 1000 Hz). Attenuation shall be at least 30 dB from (f0 + 4000
Hz) to (f0 + 5000 Hz) and at least 60 dB above (f0
+ 5000 Hz). See figure 6. Group delay time shall not vary by more than
1.0 ms over 80 percent of the passband of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz (575-2775 Hz).
Measurements shall be performed end-to-end (transmitter audio input to
receiver audio output) with the radio equipment configured in a back-to-back
NOTE: Although the response values given are for single-channel USB
operation, an identical shape, but inverted channel response, is required
for LSB or the inverted channel of a dual-channel independent sideband
FIGURE 6. Overall channel response
for single-channel or dual-channel equipment.
126.96.36.199 Four-channel operation.
When four-channel independent sideband operation is employed, the four
individual 3-kHz channels shall be configured as shown in figure 7, which
also shows the amplitude response for these four channels. Channels A2
and B2 shall be inverted and displaced with respect to channels A1 and
B1 as shown on the figure. This can be accomplished by using subcarrier
frequencies of 6290 Hz above and below the center carrier frequency, or
by other suitable techniques that produce the required channel displacements
and inversions. The suppression of any subcarriers used shall be at least
40 dB (DO: 50 dB) below the level of a single tone in the A2 or B2 channel
modulating the transmitter to 25 percent of peak envelope power (PEP).
See figure 7. The rf amplitude versus frequency response for each ISB channel
shall be within 2 dB (DO: 1 dB) between 250 Hz and 3100 Hz, referenced
to each channel's carrier (either actual or virtual). Referenced from each
channel's carrier, the channel attenuation shall be at least 40 dB at 50
Hz and 3250 Hz, and at least 60 dB at -250 Hz and 3550 Hz. Group delay
distortion shall not exceed 1500 microseconds over the ranges 370 Hz to
750 Hz and 3000 Hz to 3100 Hz. The distortion shall not exceed 1000 microseconds
over the range 750 Hz to 3000 Hz. Group delay distortion shall not exceed
150 microseconds for any 100-Hz frequency increment between 570 Hz and
3000 Hz. Measurements shall be performed end-to-end (transmitter audio
input to receiver audio output) with the radio equipment configured in
a back-to-back test setup.
FIGURE 7. Overall channel characteristics
5.2.8 Absolute delay.
The absolute delay shall not exceed 10 ms (DO: 5 ms) over the frequency
range of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz. Measurements shall be performed back-to-back
as in paragraph 188.8.131.52.
5.3 Transmitter characteristics.
5.3.1 Noise and distortion.
184.108.40.206 In-band noise.
Broadband noise in a 1-Hz bandwidth within the selected sideband shall
be at least 75 decibels referenced to full-rated peak envelope power (dBc)
below the level of the rated PEP of the HF transmitter for fixed station
application and 65 dBc below the level of the rated PEP of the HF transmitter
for tactical application.
220.127.116.11 Intermodulation distortion (IMD).
The IMD products of HF transmitters produced
by any two equal-level signals within the 3 dB bandwidth (a single-frequency
audio output) shall be at least 30 dB below either tone for fixed station
application and 24 dB below either tone for tactical application when the
transmitter is operating at rated PEP. The frequencies of the two audio
test signals shall not be harmonically or subharmonically related and shall
have a minimum separation of 300 Hz.
5.3.2 Spectral purity.
18.104.22.168 Broadband emissions.
When the transmitter is driven with a single tone to the rated PEP, the
power spectral density of the transmitter broadband emission shall not
exceed the level established in table III and as shown in figure 8. Discrete
spurs shall be excluded from the measurement, and the measurement bandwidth
shall be 1 Hz.
TABLE III. Out-of-band power spectral
density limits for radio transmitters.
Attenuation Below In-Band Power Density (dBc)
fm = fc + (0.5 B + 500)
40 (DO: 43)
fm = fc + 1.0 B
45 (DO: 48)
fm = fc + 2.5 B
60 (DO: 80)
(fc + 4.0 B) < fm < 1.05
0.95 fc < fm < (fc
- 4.0 B)
70 (DO: 80)
fm < 0.95 fc
fm > 1.05 fc
90 (DO: 120)
Where: fm = frequency of measurement (Hz)
fc = center frequency of bandwidth (Hz)
B = bandwidth (Hz)
FIGURE 8. Out-of-band power spectral
density for HF transmitters.
22.214.171.124 Discrete frequency spurious emissions.
For HF transmitters, when driven with a single tone to produce an rf output
of 25 percent rated PEP, all discrete frequency spurious emissions shall
be suppressed as follows:
a. For fixed application
See figure 10a.
Between the carrier frequency fc and fc ± 4B (where B = bandwidth),
at least 40 dBc.
Between fc ± 4B and ± 5 percent of fc removed from the carrier
frequency, at least 60 dBc.
Beyond ±5 percent removed from the carrier frequency, at least 80
Harmonic performance levels shall not exceed -63 dBc.
b. For tactical application
See figure 9.
Between the carrier frequency fc and fc ± 4B (where
B = bandwidth), at least 40 dBc.
Beyond fc ± 4B at least 50 dBc.
Harmonic performance levels shall not exceed -40 dBc.
5.3.3 Carrier suppression.
The suppressed carrier for tactical applications shall be at least 40 dBc
(DO: 60 dBc) below the output level of a single tone modulating the transmitter
to rated PEP. The suppressed carrier for fixed site applications shall
be at least 50 dBc (DO: 60 dBc) below the output level of a single tone
modulating the transmitter to rated PEP.
5.3.4 Automatic level control (ALC).
Starting at ALC threshold, an increase of 20 dB in audio input shall result
in less than a 1 dB increase in average rf power output.
FIGURE 9. Discrete spurious emissions
limit for HF transmitters.
5.3.5 Attack and release time delays.
126.96.36.199 Attack-time delay.
The time interval from keying-on a transmitter until the transmitted rf
signal amplitude has increased to 90 percent of its steady-state value
shall not exceed 25 ms (DO: 10 ms). This delay excludes any necessary time
for automatic antenna tuning.
188.8.131.52 Release-time delay.
The time interval from keying-off a transmitter until the transmitted rf
signal amplitude has decreased to 10 percent of its key-on steady-state
value shall be 10 ms or less.
5.3.6 Signal input interface characteristics.
184.108.40.206 Input signal power.
Input signal power for microphone or handset input is not standardized.
When a line-level input is provided (see paragraph 220.127.116.11), rated transmitter
PEP shall be obtainable for single tone amplitudes from 17 dBm to
+6 dBm (manual adjustment permitted).
18.104.22.168 Input audio signal interface.
22.214.171.124.1 Unbalanced interface.
When an unbalanced interface is provided, it shall have an audio input
impedance of a nominal 150 ohms, unbalanced with respect to ground, with
a minimum return loss of 20 dB against a 150-ohm resistance over the nominal
3 kHz passband.
126.96.36.199.2 Balanced interface.
When a balanced interface is provided, the audio input impedance shall
be a nominal 600 ohms, balanced with respect to ground, with a minimum
return loss of 26 dB against a 600-ohm resistance over the frequency range
of 300 Hz to 3050 Hz. The electrical symmetry shall be sufficient to suppress
longitudinal currents at least 40 dB below the reference signal level.
5.3.7 Transmitter output load impedance.
The nominal rf output load impedance at interface point B in figure 2 shall
be 50 ohms, unbalanced with respect to ground. Transmitters shall survive
any voltage standing wave radio (VSWR) at point B, while derating the output
power as a function of increasing VSWR. However, the transmitter shall
deliver full rated forward power into a 1.3:1 VSWR load. Figure 11 is a
design objective for the derating curve. The VSWR between an exciter and
an amplifier shall be less than 1.5:1. The VSWR between an amplifier and
an antenna coupler shall be less than 1.5:1 for fixed applications and
less than 2.0:1 for tactical application.
FIGURE 10. Output power vs. VSWR for
transmitters with broadband output impedance networks.
NOTE: The full-rated output power of a transmitter over the operating
frequency range is defined to be (a) the rated PEP when the transmitter
is driven by a two-tone signal consisting of equal amplitude tones, and
(b) the rated average power when driven by a single tone. The output rating
shall be determined with the transmitter operating into a 50-ohm load.
5.4 Receiver characteristics.
5.4.1 Receiver rf characteristics.
All receiver input amplitudes are in terms of available power in dBm from
a 50-ohm source impedance signal generator.
188.8.131.52 Image rejection.
The rejection of image signals shall be at least 70 dB for tactical HF
receivers and 80 dB for all other HF receivers (DO: 100 dB).
184.108.40.206 Intermediate frequency (IF) rejection.
Spurious signals at the IF (frequencies) shall be rejected by at least
70 dB for tactical HF receivers and 80 dB for all other HF receivers (DO:
220.127.116.11 Adjacent-channel rejection.
The receiver shall reject any signal in the undesired sideband and adjacent
channel in accordance with figure 6.
18.104.22.168 Other signal-frequency external
Receiver rejection of spurious frequencies, other than IF and image, shall
be at least 65 dB (55 dB for tactical application) for frequencies from
+2.5 percent to +30 percent, and from -2.5 percent to -30 percent of the
center frequency, and at least 80 dB (70 dB for tactical application) for
frequencies beyond +30 percent of the center frequency.
22.214.171.124 Receiver protection.
The receiver, with primary power on or off, shall be capable of survival
without damage with applied signals of up to +43 dBm (DO: +53 dBm) available
power delivered from a 50-ohm source for a duration of 5 minutes for fixed
site applications and 1 minute for tactical applications.
126.96.36.199 Desensitization dynamic range.
The following requirement shall apply to the receiver in an SSB mode of
operation with an IF passband setting providing at least 2750 Hz (nominal
3 kHz bandwidth) at the 2 dB points. With the receiver tuning centered
on a sinusoidal input test signal and with the test signal level adjusted
to produce an output SINAD of 10 dB, a single interfering sinusoidal signal,
offset from the test signal by an amount equal to +5 percent of
the carrier frequency, is injected into the receiver input. The output
SINAD shall not be degraded by more than 1 dB as follows:
a. For fixed site radios, the interfering signal is equal to or less
than 100 dB above the test signal level.
b. For tactical radios, the interfering signal is equal to or less than
90 dB above the test signal level.
188.8.131.52 Receiver sensitivity.
The sensitivity of the receiver over the operating frequency range, in
the sideband mode of operation (3-kHz bandwidth), shall be such that a
-111 dBm (DO: -121 dBm) unmodulated signal at the antenna terminal, adjusted
for a 1000 Hz audio output, produces an audio output with a SINAD of at
least 10 dB over the operating frequency range.
184.108.40.206 Receiver out-of-band IMD.
Second-order and higher-order responses shall require a two-tone signal
amplitude with each tone at -30 dBm or greater (-36 dBm or greater for
tactical applications), to produce an output SINAD equivalent to a single
-110 dBm tone. This requirement is applicable for equal-amplitude input
signals with the closest signal spaced 30 kHz or more from the operating
220.127.116.11 Third-order intercept point.
Using test signals within the first IF passband, the worst-case third-order
intercept point shall not be less than +10 dBm (+1 dBm for tactical applications).
5.4.2 Receiver distortion and internally
generated spurious outputs.
18.104.22.168 Overall IMD (in-channel).
The total of IMD products, with two equal-amplitude, in-channel tones spaced
110 Hz apart, present at the receiver rf input, shall meet the following
requirements. However, for frequency division multiplex (FDM) service,
the receiver shall meet the requirements for any tone spacing equal to
or greater than the minimum between adjacent tones in any FDM library.
The requirements shall be met for any rf input amplitude up to 0 dBm PEP
(-6 dBm/tone) at rated audio output. All IMD products shall be at least
35 dB (DO: 45 dB) below the output level of either of the two tones.
22.214.171.124 Adjacent-channel IMD.
For multiple-channel equipment, the overall adjacent-channel IMD in each
3 kHz channel being measured shall not be greater than -35 dBm at the 3
kHz channel output with all other channels equally loaded with 0 dBm unweighted
126.96.36.199 Audio frequency total harmonic distortion.
The total harmonic distortion produced by any single-frequency rf test
signal, which produces a frequency within the frequency bandwidth of 300
Hz to 3050 Hz shall be at least 25 dB (DO: 35 dB) below the reference tone
level with the receiver at rated output level. The rf test signal shall
be at least 35 dB above the receiver noise threshold.
188.8.131.52 Internally generated spurious outputs.
For 99 percent of the available 3 kHz channels, internally generated spurious
signals shall not exceed -112 dBm. For 0.8 percent of the available 3 kHz
channels, spurious signals shall not exceed -100 dBm for tactical applications
and -106 dBm for fixed applications. For 0.2 percent of the available 3
kHz channels, spurious signals may exceed these levels.
5.4.3 Automatic gain control (AGC) characteristic.
The steady-state output level of the receiver (for a single tone) shall
not vary by more than 3 dB over an rf input range from -103 dBm to +13
dBm for fixed application or -103 dBm to 0 dBm for tactical application.
184.108.40.206 AGC attack time (nondata modes).
The receiver AGC attack time shall not exceed 30 ms.
220.127.116.11 AGC release time (nondata modes).
The receiver AGC release time shall be between 800 and 1200 ms for SSB
voice and ICW operation. This shall be the period from rf signal downward
transition until audio output is within 3 dB of the steady-state output.
The final steady-state audio output is simply receiver noise being amplified
in the absence of any rf input signal.
18.104.22.168 AGC requirements for data service.
In data service, the receiver AGC attack time shall not exceed 10 ms. The
AGC release time shall not exceed 25 ms.
5.4.4 Receiver linearity.
The following shall apply with the receiver operating at maximum sensitivity,
and with a reference input signal that produces a SINAD of 10 dB at the
receiver output. The output SINAD shall increase monotonically and linearly
within + 1.5 dB for a linear increase in input signal level until
the output SINAD is equal to at least 30 dB (DO: 40 dB). When saturation
occurs, the output SINAD may vary +3 dB for additional increase
in signal level. This requirement shall apply over the operating frequency
range of the receiver.
5.4.5 Interface characteristics.
22.214.171.124 Input impedance.
The receiver rf input impedance shall be nominally 50 ohms, unbalanced
with respect to ground. The input VSWR, with respect to 50 ohms, shall
not exceed 2.5:1 over the operating frequency range.
126.96.36.199 Output impedance and power.
When a balanced output is provided, the receiver output impedance shall
be a nominal 600 ohms, balanced with respect to ground, capable of delivering
0 dBm to a 600-ohm load. Electrical symmetry shall be sufficient to suppress
longitudinal currents at least 40 dB below reference signal level. The
receiver output signal power for operation with a headset or handset shall
be adjustable at least over the range from 30 dBm to 0 dBm. For operation
with a speaker, the output level shall be adjustable at least over the
range of 0 dBm to +30 dBm. As a DO, an additional interface can accommodate
speakers ranging from 4 to 16 ohms impedance should be provided.
5.5.1 Basic ALE (2G).
If ALE is to be implemented, it shall be in accordance with appendix A.
The ALE requirements include selective calling and handshake, link quality
analysis and channel selection, scanning, and sounding. These requirements
are organized in Appendix A as follows:
a. Requirements for ALE implementation are given in sections A-1 through
b. Detailed requirements on ALE waveform, signal structure protocols,
and ALE control function (orderwire messages) are contained in section
5.5.2 3G ALE.
This improved more capable ALE may be implemented in addition to, but not
in lieu of, Basic ALE. The technical requirements for 3G ALE are contained
in Appendix C.
If linking protection is required to be implemented, it shall be in accordance
with appendix B. These requirements are organized in Appendix B as follows:
a. General requirements for LP implementation are given in sections
B-1 through B-4.
b. Detailed requirements on how to implement LP are given in section
c. The unclassified application level (AL-1) is the lowest level of
LP and is mandatory for all protected radios implementing LP.
d. The unclassified enhanced application level (AL-2) is the highest
level of LP covered in Appendix B. The algorithms for the higher levels
of LP, application levels AL-3 and AL-4, are defined in National Security
Agency (NSA) classified documents.
e. The 24-bit encryption algorithm for linking protection applies to
2nd generation systems (Appendix B, Annex A) and the SODARK algorithm applies
to 3rd generation systems (Appendix B, Annex B).
5.7 ALE control functions (orderwire functions).
See Appendix A, paragraphs A 5.6 and A 5.7.
5.8 Networking functions.
See Appendix D.
5.9 Network management.
See Appendix D.
5.10 HF application interface.
See Appendix E.
5.11 Data link protocol.
See Appendix F.
5.12 Anti-jam capability.
See Appendix G.
5.13 Automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol.
See Appendix H.
This section contains information of a general or explanatory nature that
may be helpful, but is not mandatory.
6.1 Intended use.
a. This standard contains requirements to ensure interoperability of new
radio equipment with long-haul and tactical application in the medium frequency
(MF) band and in the high frequency (HF) band.
b. There is no requirement for linking protection to be a part of a
user's acquisition unless the user has an identified need. Optional levels
of linking protection are identified and detailed. Options AL-1 and AL-2
provide an inexpensive, least protected mode, and AL-3 and AL-4 provide
more sophisticated protection modes. The users should establish their application
level based on minimum essential requirements.
c. There is no requirement for the user to acquire any of the advanced
technology defined in the appendices to this document unless the user has
an identified requirement.
6.2 Interaction matrix.
The complexity of the adaptive features and functions may be confusing
to the user of this standard. Certain parts of the technical features are
dependent on other features defined within this standard and MIL-STD-187-721.
This dependency is not always apparent to the user or the acquisition activity.
The following matrix provides the interaction dependencies known, as of
the publication date.
6.3 Issue of DODISS.
When this standard is used in acquisition, the applicable issue of the
DODISS must be cited in the solicitation (see 2.2.1 and 2.2.2).
6.4 Subject term (key word) listing.
ALE control functions
ALE message protocol
Forward error correction
Leading redundant word
Radio frequency scanning
Star net and group
Triple redundant words
6.5 International standardization agreements.
Certain provisions of this standard in paragraphs 4.2, 4.4, 5.2, 5.3, and
5.4 are the subject of international standardization agreements, STANAGs
4203 and 5035, and QSTG 733. When change notice, revision, or cancellation
of this standard is proposed that will modify the international agreement
concerned, the preparing activity will take appropriate action through
international standardization channels, including departmental standardization
offices, to change the agreement or make other appropriate accommodations.
6.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
All services and agencies are responsible for their own EMC programs, which
are driven by their user requirements and doctrine.
HF radio has significant inherent EMC implications that requires serious
consideration by designers, users, and acquisition personnel. It is strongly
recommended that all users of this standard refer to the following documents
prior to design or acquisition of HF radio systems or equipment:
a. MIL-STD-461, Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interface
Emissions and Susceptibility.
b. MIL-STD-462, Measurement of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics.
c. MIL-HDBK-237, Electromagnetic Compatibility Management Guide for
Platform, Systems and Equipment.
The applicable portions of these documents should be included in any
acquisition actions for HF radio systems or equipment.
Interaction matrix: General features.
|1. Automated Network Management
MIL-STD-188-141 D.4.4 and D.5.3
|HNMP  and HF MIB 
|2. Remote Control Of Station Equipment
||HNMP  and HF MIB 
||*Feature supported, but no paragraph with
|3. Remote Data Fill
||HNMP  and HF MIB 
||*Feature supported, but no paragraph with
|4. Any-Media Networking
D.4.5 and D.5.5
|IP , AME  (for use of HF) HRMP 
and HSSP  (for topology monitoring) Robust networking using all available
media CONEX  is also useful.
||Robust networking using all available media;
CONEX  is also useful.
|5. Fully-Automated Message Handling
||Message Store and Forward , Route Selection
||*Level 2 HFNC  provides the features
for fully-automated (but not adaptive) message handling.
|6. Adaptive Routing
||Routing Queries 
||*Path Quality Matrix  and CONEX 
provide increased functionality, with increased overhead.
|7. Routing Queries
|8. Connectivity Monitoring
||HSSP  recommended also.
|9. Repeater Control
|10. Full-Duplex Independent Operation
||Frequency Select Command 
|11. Internet Services
||*For example, FTP, SMTP, Telnet (defined
||IP  and either 3G Data Link Protocol
 (preferred) or HFDLP 
||*Defined in RFC-793 Do not use over HF channels
without an ARQ protocol.
||*Defined in RFC-768
||AME  For use of HF, HFNC 
||*Defined in RFC-791 (ICMP in RFC-792)
|15. Indirect Calling
||4.8 and D.5.2.2
||ALE controller (for Link Establishment)
||Level 2 (or higher) HFNC  recommended
for selection alternate station.
||(See Table D-II for levels of functional
capability) Requires at least one link controller, including ALE, HFDLP
, or other media.
||SDLP  recommended for link controller
interface. FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP  recommended for message transfer
over HF links (versus ALE modem with DTM  or DBM )
|17. Routing Table
|18. Path Quality Matrix
||CONEX  may be used to dynamically update
||Network Layer Header 
||Normally uses Path Quality Matrix ; may
instead use only link control.
|20. Route Selection
||Routing Table 
|21. Network Layer Header
Interaction matrix: General features (continued).
|22. Message Store And Forward
|23. Null Store And Forward
||AME Protocol , and either Message Store
and Forward  or Null Store and Forward 
||Automatic Message Exchange
|25. AME Protocol
|Network Layer Header 
||Automatic Message Exchange. Works best with
3G modems and protocols  or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP .
||Network Layer Header 
||HF Relay Management Protocol. Works best
with 3G modems and protocols  or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP .
||Network Layer Header 
||HF Station Status Protocol. Works best with
3G modems and protocols  or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP .
||AME  for HF Links; UDP  and IP 
when using Internet; UDP+IP+AME when internetworking via HF.
||HF Network Management Protocol. Works best
with 3G modems and protocols  or FED-STD-1052 modem and HFDLP .
|29. HF MIB
|30. Interface to Link Controllers
||SDLP  recommended protocol for interface
to link controllers.
||Station Data Link Protocol
||MIL-STD-188-110-serial-tone modem. FS-1052
||HF Data Link Protocol will work over other
modems, but is optimized for the
MIL-STD-188-110 serial-tone modem.
||B.4.1, B.4.1.1, B.5.1, B.5.2
|Time Exchange Protocol  (for synchronization).
|34. Time Exchange Protocol
||B.4.1, B.4.1.1, B.5.1, B.5.2
||Time service protocol is usually sufficient
|35. Frequency Select Command
||ALE Controller, Frequency Designators 
|36. Frequency Designators
|37. Channel Designators
|38. LQA Matrix
||At least one source of data: Basic LQA ,
Polling , LQA Reporting , or ALQA .
||LQA Matrix is required in MIL-STD-188-141
|39. Passive LQA
||At least one Polling Protocol from [24-26]
|42. Individual Poll
|43. Multistation, Single-channel Polling
||ALE Controller that supports Star Net Calls
 or Star Group Calls 
Interaction matrix: General features (continued)
|44. Two-station, Single-channel Polling
||Frequency Designators  or Channel Designator
 required to select channels outside current scan list.
|45. ALQA Reporting
||LQA Report Protocol 
|46. LQA Report Protocol
||MIL-STD-188-141 ALE Controller with LQA Matrix
, and either DTM  OR DBM .
||Frequency Designators  or Channel Designators
 required to report channels outside current scan list.
||Data Block Message Greater throughput than
DTM , but less than FED-STD-1052
||Data Text Message.
||Automatic Message Display
||Link Quality Analysis
|52. Star Group Calls
|53. Star Net Calls
|54. Individual Calls
|57. Wildcard Addressing
|59. HF E-mail
||TCP  and/or 3G protocols 
||Electronic mail over HF
|60. 3G Link Automation
||3G ALE , 3G Data Link Protocols ,
and 3G Modem 
||High performance protocol suite for large
networks and data applications.
|61. 3G ALE
||3G Modem (BW0) 
|62. 3G Data Link
||3G ALE , 3G TM , 3G ARQ , 3G
CLC , 3G Modem 
||High performance data link protocols, including
ability to engage NATO protocols
|63. 3G Modem
||Scalable suite of waveforms for various channel
|64. 3G TM
||3G ALE , 3G Modem (BW1) 
||Traffic Management protocol; coordinates
transitions from ALE to traffic protocol.
|65. 3G ARQ
||3G ALE , 3G TM , 3G Modem (BW1-4)
||High rate and robust automatic repeat request
(reliable) data link protocols.
|66. 3G CLC
||3G ALE , 3G TM 
||Circuit Link Control (for circuit or "hard"